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Computers Merit Badge

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Robert Winter

on 2 March 2013

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Transcript of Computers Merit Badge

Software Engineer. Bachelor's degree in computer science. Higher positions may require an advanced degree. Computer programming experience and/or experience managing information systems. For specialty areas such as internet or security. For certifications. Keeping up with training is a lifelong requirement for this career. Challenge of solving problems and getting things to work. Median salary of $89,280 in 2011. Tell what computers are and briefly describe their history. Tell what data processing is, and how it is used.

Name the four major components of a computer system, and describe the function of one component in detail.

Build a simple model of one of the following that will help you to illustrate and explain its function in detail - core storage, drum storage, or disk storage.

Describe the differences and uses of analog and digital computers.

Explain the Hollerith and Powers codes, and their roles in computers.

Obtain your local post office Zip code and convert it to binary.

Using the flow-chart diagram method, show the steps necessary in setting up a campsite.

Name four different uses of computers in business.

Convert your full name to each of the following codes - Hollerith, binary-coded decimal, and eight-channel standard code.

Be able to tell your Merit Badge Counselor in your own words the meaning of the following: functional units, storage, input and output devices, random access, on-line system, central processing unit, magnetic ink character, information retrieval, solid-state components, nanosecond, stored program, console, optical reader, and register.

Do any two of the following:
- Arrange with your Counselor to visit a local computer installation
- Obtain and read two pieces of information about data processing other than the manufacture's literature. Summarize what you read for the Counselor.
- Write a 500-word report on the various types of specialist occupations available in the data-processing field. Include educational requirements and average wage brackets when possible.
- Show your Counselor five examples of data-processing output, or tape, cards, or report form used.

Do the following:
- Construct an analog adder and explain its operation.
Construct a card reader, demonstrate it to your Counselor, and explain to him the difference between the Hollerith code and the internal machine code. Computers Merit Badge Presented by
Dipendra Bhujel
Bob Winter Boy Scouts
BU March 2, 2013 Introduction to Computer Science
By: ITL Education Solutions Limited
Publisher: Pearson Education India
Pub. Date: May 21, 2011
Print ISBN-10: 8131760308
Print ISBN-13: 9788131760307
e-Book ISBN-10: 8131767396
e-Book ISBN-13: 9788131767399
Pages in Print Edition: 532 http://www.scouting.org/sitecore/content/Home/Marketing/Resources/SocialMedia.aspx New program to help youth stay safe online. Different requirements by grade level. Information covered includes cyberbullying, cell phone use, texting, blogging, gaming, and identity theft. (created 1967 to be replaced in 2013) I will think before I post. I will respect other people online. I will be careful when meeting online friends in person. I will protect myself online. Early Math Aids - fingers, sand table, abacus, Napier bones, slide rule. First Calculator - Pascaline calculator, 1642. First Computer - Babbage's analytical engine, 1830s. MARK-I - electromechanical relays, 1937; EDVAC and ENIAC - vacuum tubes, both 1946. General Purpose Computer - Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC), 1950s. Transistor, 1947. Integrated Circuit, late 1950s. Microprocessor, 1971. Personal Computer, 1975. Mobile Computing - laptop, smart phone, tablet. Augmented Reality Computers - Google Glass, 2013. Special Purpose Computers - Hollerith punched card tabulating machines, 1890; World Wide Web, Internet, Cloud. Quantum Computing (2023?). Communication, social media, entertainment, helping the disabled. Solving complex calulations, processing huge qualtities of data. Robots, sensors and control systems, manufacturing. Medicine. Weather. Manufacturing. Science. Finances. Online learning - school work or Massively Open Online Course (MOOC). Communication - email & video calls. Central Processor (CPU) - executes instructions on data and outputs results. Memory, read-only and random-access (ROM & RAM) - stores instructions, inputs and results. Input Devices - various means for new programs and data to be entered. Storage Units - save information and programs when computer is off. Output Devices - ways for computer to make results of processing known. .txt extension; ASCII; Unicode Analog to digital converter chip to convert sound waves to binary data. Pixel - picture element, smallest . Combines a series of pictures and sound. Lossless - removes repeated elements during compession, puts them back during decompression. Lossy - removes information that is not required. Lossless - no impact. Lossy - detail is lost forever, how Insulin pump and implantable glucose sensor - can learn how an individual diabetic reacts to increases in blood sugar and the best way to respond with insulin. Google self driving car - various computers in the car monitor and react to sensors in order to drive the car to the desired destination. They adapt to their environment and improve over time using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Gmail Email and contacts. Google calendar Tracking family member's schedules. Chrome Browse and run programs on the internet. Google Docs Author and collaboratively edit documents. Be careful what email attachments you open and which websites you visit. Keep your computer patched and use a virus scanner. Back up your data frequently and in several places. Encrypt your hard drive and backups. Through local-area networks (LAN) and wide-area networks (WANS). Many homes have broadband connections with the cable or telephone company. Internet Protocol (IP) address is the locator for a computer on the internet, e.g. 345.18.99.248. Domain Name Service (DNS) looks up the IP address for a domain name, such as "www.scouting.org." People own what they create and they should be allowed to control what they own. Copyright law allows people to exercise that control. Making or distributing illegal copies of someone's copyrighted work is stealing. Intellectual Property - creative products having commercial value. No different from accepting a stolen car. Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) - various levels of freedom; free to use, free to modify, free to redistribute with attribution, free to claim as your own. Shareware, Trialware, Demoware - Free to try; must purchase to continue. Can't download copyright material. But you can listen to streaming music, Pandora or iHeartRadio. Music subscription services, Napster to Go or Rhapsody To Go. Purchase music online, iTunes or Amazon or Google. Nearly all careers will use computers. Video game designer. Data Scientist. Software Engineer. Instructions for the computer to execute. Operating System, application, programming language. Waterfall - Requirements, Design, Implementation, Verification, Maintenance. Agile - Scrum, Sprint, Co-location, Changing Requirements, Minimal Viable Product, Deliver the Most Value Early, Test Driven Development, Continuous Refactoring to improve understanding, Domain Driven Design, DevOps, continuous feedback from the users. SQL special-purpose programming language designed for managing data in relational database management systems (RDBMS). javascript prototype-based scripting language that is dynamic, weakly typed and has first-class functions. It uses syntax influenced by the language C. It was created to run in web browsers so that client-side scripts may interact with the user. Scala multi-paradigm programming language designed as a "better Java", runs on the Java virtual machine (JVM) and interoperable with Java, integrates functional programming with Java's object-oriented programming model, cleans up poor design decisions. detail is lost depends on how heavily the file was compressed. History & impact of computers 300 BC Abacus 1617 Logarithms

1632 Slide Rule 1801 Jacquard Loom is
a Mechanical loom.

Inventor History & impact of computers 1642 Pascaline Early Math Aids First Calculator 1822 and 1833 designs
Prototype for modern computers
Four parts: Input device, memory (store), processor (mill), and an output device
The difference machine was actually built recently at MIT.. and worked!! Charles Babbage’s “Difference Machine” and “Analytical Engine” First Computer Developed to win a contest by the Census Bureau to improve census data processing after the 1880 census had taken seven years to tabulate.
They were used successfully in the 1890 U. S. Census
The concept was not THAT new – in France in 1801, Joseph-Marie Jacquard invented an automatic loom using punched cards for the control of the patterns in the fabrics.
Herman Hollerith later formed the company that became IBM (International Business Machines Corporation). Herman Hollerith’s
Punch Cards World War II: computers were developed to break German and Japanese message codes and create firing tables
Technologies: central processors were made up of vacuum tubes
Beginning with the Harvard Mark I, they could be re-programmed by re-wiring with plugs like a switchboard, or with paper punch tape Colossus Mark I (England), Harvard Mark I, ENIAC, EDVAC 9 September 1945 –Ensign Grace Murray Hopper (RADM, USN) removed the first “bug” from a electromagnetic relay in the Harvard Mark II where it had been smashed, halting the computer. She taped the moth to a page the log book. De-bugging computers is born 1947 - William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain invent the "transfer resistance" device, later to be known as the “transistor,” to replace vacuum tubes
1951 – Magnetic-core memory also replaces tubes, making real-time memory use practical Technological
Breakthroughs First mass-produced computer (46 made)
The size of a one-car garage (14’ x 8’ x 8.5’)
5,200 vacuum tubes required a chilled water air conditioning system
Government, GE, insurance companies, DuPont (scientific)
1956 Concordance of the Bible (6 mos. vs. 30 yrs) Remington Rand UNIVAC – 1951 - Delivered to the Census Bureau 1958 – Jack Kilby created the first “integrated circuit” at Texas Instruments to prove that resistors and capacitors could exist on the same piece of semiconductor material. His circuit consisted of a sliver of poisonous germanium with five components linked by wires. Germanium was soon replaced by silicon (1961). Integrated Circuit 1971 - Federico Faggin, Ted Hoff, and others at Intel designed the 4004 microprocessor while building a custom chip for Busicom, a Japanese calculator maker. The 4004 had 2,250 transistors, handling data in four-bit chunks, and could perform 60,000 operations per second. Microprocessors Special Purpose Computers "Universal" Computer 1975 - Electronics hobbyists buy the earliest personal computer
MITS Altair 8800 (Intel 8080)
1976 - Consumer computers arrive after several companies begin large scale manufacturing
1976 - Apple Computer Apple II
1977 - Radio Shack TRS-80
Commodore PET
Heath H8, H9
1981 – IBM PC Electronic Hobby Computers evolve into Personal Computers!! Smart phone, laptop, tablet Augmented Reality What's in that Box web
Click-n-learn Guide to PC
PC Tech Guide
Dave's Guide Schematic Diagrams Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the “brain,” and is some brand of microprocessor chip
Intel 4004 – 2,250 transistors; 8088 – 40,000; 80486 – 1 million; Pentium – 7 million; Pentium II – 30 million
The CPU is normally mounted in a plug-in socket on the motherboard, a circuit board tying everything in the computer together via an electronic “bus”
Co-processors are used to offload computing tasks from the CPU, such as mathematics and graphics
Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read-Only Memory (ROM) are also mounted here
ROM is permanent, often re-writable (CMOS)
RAM is transient unless permanently powered (Palm)
See PC Tech Guide for more details Parts of a Computer Keyboard (QUERTY, Dvorak, custom – an alphanumeric symbol digitizer)
Mouse and other Pointing devices
Trackball, joystick, pressure-sensitive tablet, touch screen – a location digitizer
Sound digitizer (microphone, MIDI device)
Scanner (an image digitizer)
Sensor (temperature, light, moisture, smoke, movement, or other environmental digitizer) Input Devices (digitizers) Sequential Access
Magnetic Tape
Reel-to-reel or cassette
Original microcomputer media, now used for backups
Random Access
Floppy Disk (8”, 5 ¼”, 3.25”, etc.)
Magnetic powder coating on flexible disk in sleeve
Drive contains an actuator and read-write head on arm
Hard Disk
Magnetically coated metallic platters on high-speed spindle
Drive actuator with many floating read-write heads on arms
For more information see How Hard Drives Work and PC Tech Guide (where this diagram came from ----- >) Magnetic Storage Medium Typical Capacity Equivalent Size High-density disk 1.4 megabytes 720 typed pages Hard Drive 80 megabytes 40,000 pages CD-ROM 540 megabytes 270,000 pages DVD-5 4.5 gigabytes Motion picture CD-ROM (Compact-Disc Read-Only Memory)
Write laser burns pits into the surface of the disk
Read laser bounces light off the pitted surface
WORM – Write Once Read Many, or CD-R
Newest formats: CD-RW, DVD, DVD-RW
Capacity (newer media have higher capacities)
Compare the CD-ROM surface (left) to the DVD surface (right)
For more information see How CDs Work and PC Tech Guide Optical
Storage Printers (the first output device) and Plotters
Impact (daisywheel) and dot-matrix
Thermal (early BW and color)
Laser (highest quality, BW and color)
Plotters (pens on moving arms like seismographs)
Ink-jet (color plotters lead to printers, some also thermal)
Analog: CRT (cathode-ray tube) – the “monitor”
Digital: LCD (liquid-crystal display) screens
Sound Card (digital to analog converter)
Modem (modulator-demodulator; another digital to analog signal converter) Output Devices Text and numeric characters are stored as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange ) values, consisting of 128 different decimal codes. Extended ASCII goes to 256 codes.
ASCII translates each letter and number into a binary byte (8 bits) that the computer understands.
"1" is ASCII decimal “49” and binary 00110001
"A" is ASCII decimal “65” and binary 01000001
“&” is ASCII decimal “38” and binary 00100110
“z” is ASCII decimal “122” and binary 01111010 Data Storage: Text & Numbers ASCII Decimal ASCII Binary Alphanumeric 2 01000010 B 18 01001111 O 26 01011001 Y 20 01010011 S 3 01000011 C 18 01001111 O 22 01010101 U 21 01010100 T 20 01010011 S ASCII Translation Normal sound is made up of waves or vibrations.  Each sound wave has a wavelength (how far between the waves) and amplitude (how high the wave is).
A mixed, analog waveform signal comes in to the sound card from a source (microphone) and is processed in real-time by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) circuit chip to create a binary (digital) output of 1s and 0s. This is done at a specified interval or “sampling frequency” (i.e., 1/10th of a second). 
The digital output from the ADC is further processed and compressed by the digital sound processor (DSP), and the output from the DSP is sent to the computer's CPU via the sound card connections and the data bus on the motherboard.
Digital sound data is processed by the CPU and sent to the hard-disk controller to be recorded on the hard-disk drive as a wav file.
Playback is a reversal of this process, using a a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) circuit chip to play back the binary sound file.
For more detailed information see How Sound Cards Work Data Storage: Sound sample rate amplitude Wavelength Sound waves are sampled at a constant rate (sample rate)
Amplitude (height) of the wave is stored.
The higher the sample rate the better the sound
The higher the sample rate the more data is stored Storing Sound CD Audio DVD Audio Sampling Rate 44.1 kHz 192 kHz Samples per second 44,100 192,000 Sampling Accuracy 16-bit 24-bit Number of possible Output Levels 65,536 16,777,216 Analog to Digital Computer pictures are stored as millions of colored dots called “pixels” (picture elements) that have to be translated to an analog signal for an analog CRT monitor to display them (LCD panels are already digital so no translation is required).
Each black each color pixel is three dots, Red, Green, and Blue (RGB) that combine to create a color. Color pixel combinations range from 256 possible colors to over 16.8 million colors (real, or true color).
The more pixels a picture has, the better it looks (it has a higher resolution). Each pixel has an associated color and location on the screen expressed in binary terms.
When stored, each pixel’s information is saved to disk separately. In a true color (32 bit) pixel, 4 bytes are used to store the color information for each dot in the pixel. For a 1600x1200-pixel display this is 8-million bytes of video memory, stored as one 8mb disk file! (bit-depth in How Computer Monitors Work)
For more detailed information see How Graphics Cards Work Data Storage: Pictures A pixel Yellow Purple Blue Green Red Color Displays White Black Color Displays CRT
Dot Trio
Aperture Grill
Slotted Mask
Enhanced Dot Pitch
LCD CRT Display
LCD Display The Scottish inventor of logarithms went on to construct calculating rods (made from bone) that perform multiplication and division by simply adding and subtracting
Led to slide rules (1621 – Fr. Oughtred) Napier’s Bones (circa 1617) x x x x
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