Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Sensation and Perception

No description

Leo Ham

on 8 January 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Sensation and Perception

Whole can be greater than the sum of its parts:
-Figure and ground
-Continuity Le Wen Chiu, Leo Ham, Alex Gama, Rebecca Mattox, Adrianna Nine
AP Psychology Period 5 Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception Basic Principles Sensory Processes Gestalt Principles Role of Attention in Behavior Perceptual set Major Figures Vison:
-crystalline lens-retina [rods (shapes) & cones (colors)]
-optic disk
-optic nerve fibers (axons from ganglion cells)
-optic chiasm (optic nerves cross over and project to opposite half of brain)

2 pathways:
-main pathway: color, form, contrast, motion
-projects to thalamus
-second: perception of motion and coordination Sensory Disorders Bottom-up processing:
-a progression from individual elements to the whole

Top-down processing:
-a progression from the whole to the elements Absolute Threshold: The minimum stimulus intensity that an organism can detect. These define the boundaries of an organism’s sensory capabilities

Just Noticeable Difference (JND): The smallest difference in stimulus intensity that a specific sense can detect. Signal Detection Theory: Proposes that the detection of stimuli involves decision processes as well as sensory processes.

Sensory Adaptation: A gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation. Biology of hearing
-sound waves
-pinna (external ear)
-ear drum
-hammer, anvil, stirrup (ossicles, middle ear)
-oval window (inner ear)
-cochlea (basilar membrane)
-hair cells (auditory receptors)
-auditory nerves
-auditory cortex (temporal lobes) Touch:
-cells locate tactile stimulation
-nerve fibers -> spinal cord -> brainstem
-fibers cross to opposite side of brain
-somato-sensory cortex (parietal lobe) Pain:
-free nerve endings in the skin
-fast pathway: localized pain and relays to cortex in a fraction of a second
-A-delta fibers (thick)
-slow pathway: longer-lasting, aching or burning pain
-C fibers (thin) Taste:
-taste buds (clusters of taste cells)
-cells absorb chemicals in saliva -> neural impulses routed through thalamus to cortex
-sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami Smell:
-olfactory cilia (receptors = hairlike substances in upper nasal passage that are short-lived and often replaced)
-olfactory bulb --> olfactory cortex (temporal lobe)
-information goes directly to the cortex Vision:
-nearsightedness: far objects appear blurry

-farsightedness: close objects appear blurry

-visual agnosia: inability to recognize objects propagnosia: inability to recognize familiar faces

colorblindness: a variety of deficiencies in the ability to distinguish among colors

Deafness- the inability to hear Depth Perception Involves interpretation of visual cues that indicate how near or far away objects are:

-Binocular/monocular depth cues
-retinal disparity
-pictorial depth cues A readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way
-experience of the world is subjective
-based on interpretation Top down processing
-progresses from the whole to the elements
-makes it easier for brain to be tricked
-brain registers whole image a certain way
-then analyzes parts and sees true perception of object Common Beliefs in Parapsychological Phenomena -Similar to the gate-control theory
-presence of a stimulus may provoke a subject into acting in a certain way.
Ex) a threatening stimulus (such as a predator) may cause an animal to act in a certain way, such as hiding or not making noises, etc. Kinesthetic system:
-monitors positions of various parts of the body through receptors in muscles and joints
Vestibular system:
-relies on fluid movements in semicircular canals in inner ear (equilibrium) Gustav Fechner - published pioneering work on psychophysics; threshold

David Hubel - studied activity of neurons in visual cortex
-feature detectors: neurons that respond selectively to very specific features of more complex stimuli Ernst Weber - founder of experimental psychology
-Weber's Law: Just Noticeable Difference is proportional to magnitude of stimulus
Torsten Wiesel - worked with Hubel -parapsychology is difficult to prove and/or disprove
-there are many scientifically inexplicable phenomena that occur that can be explained by parapsychology
-many people believe that babies are an example of parapsychology.
-they are said to have extra-sensory perception. Gate control theory: incoming pain sensations must pass through a "gate" (pattern of neural activity that inhibits pain signals) taste:
-super tasters: specialized taste receptors not found in nontasters
-sensitive to sweet and bitter
-nontasters: 1/4 taste buds per centimeter squared of super tasters
-medium tasters: between the extremes
Full transcript