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Post-World War II Independence Movements
Transcript of Post-World War II Independence Movements
Emily Winter & Emma Hawkins
1945 and 1960
, three dozen new states in Asia and Africa achieved autonomy or outright independence from their European colonial rulers."
Harold McMillan was a british prime minister who helped begin decolonization.
Back on July 4th, 1776, we signed our official Independence letter to Great Britain and completely lost connections to them. (e.g. No trade, we were not under their rule, etc.)
This gave other countries the courage to separate from their "rulers" in Europe.
In the 1960's
Africa, India, & parts of Asia
did strive for autonomy
The colonies of European countries tried to gain independence after World war II because the European countries were weakened from war and unable to hold on to territories.
After WWII, national self-determination became an objective for some countries and international organizations like the United States and the United Nations.
Where some countries were granted their independence by their colonial masters, others had to fight for it.
African colonies that were controlled by other countries like France and Britain were then independent.
They became self-governed instead of being controlled by a larger country.
After the colonies became independent, transportation and communication facilities were then improved.
sectors were created
in the new countries.
The colonized states of Africa sought independence from the European powers that they were imprisoned by.
After World War II, Africa was shown that their captors were not invincible.
Many French and British colonies had very little bloodshed, while Portuguese colonies that became the states of Angola and Mozambique were required to fight long, hard wars of independence.
Middle East was similarly split between Great Britain and France, who set up puppet states in the region to give some semblance of home rule.
What Changed- Over time:
Solidifying our Knowledge:
India was trying to gain independence from Great Britain.
Britain, France, Belgium, and Portugal all lost their colonies in Africa.
Kenya went through a violent rebellion against the British rule.
Algeria went through a violent rebellion against France.
The Indian Independence movement was lead by
led the independence fight against the British in Kenya.
led the fight against apartheid in South Africa.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
was the leader of Egypt who built the Aswan High Dam, nationalized the Suez Canal, and established a relationship with the USSR.
*Pilots training for combat in the Korean independence movement.
*The first Indian national congress
*Jomo Kenyatta became Kenya's first post-independence leader in 1963
, British Prime Minister, helped begin decolonization
France, Portugal, Great Britain, Germany, Belgium, and Italy had divided Africa's territory and resources for themselves.
This process was called
Address by Nelson Mandela to Umkhonto we Sizwe conference
Primary Source Document:
3 September 1993
"...It is with great honour that I stand here before you at this critical juncture in the history of our country. You, the combatants of our peoples army, Umkhonto We Sizwe, have left an indelible mark on the history of our struggle for freedom and democracy. We are gathered here today to look back on that history, to acknowledge both our strengths and weaknesses and more importantly to consolidate our gains in order to face the challenges ahead..."