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The development of Gas Turbine engines

A research project into Turbojets, Turbofans, Turboshafts, Turboprops, and Ramjets
by

Isaac Henderson

on 8 October 2012

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Transcript of The development of Gas Turbine engines

Turbojets Gas turbine engines Turboprops These are the
basic components
of a turbojet.
It works in 5 stages: 1. Air is taken in through the inlet, and slowed. This increases both temperature (T) and pressure (P). 2. Air then enters the
compressor where blades
compress the air further,
greatly increasing T and P. 3. The air is then mixed with fuel in the combustion chamber, greatly increasing T, but at constant pressure. 4. The burned fuel-air mixture then expands through the turbine
which is rotated by the gas. The velocity of of this turbine is then
translated back through a shaft to the compressor. 5. Lastly, the gas is expanded through a nozzle and is
exhausted back into the air at the jet velocity. World War II World War II was the most widespread conflict of all time.

There were two sides: Allies, and Axis which between them included the majority of the world's nations.

World War II saw extensive use of air warfare, and thus the race for air superiority relied on having the latest equipment and capabilities.

Although grim, it is a reality that WWII accelerated the development of aircraft like nothing else in history Key players in turbojet development Axis

Nazi Germany

Italy

Japan Allies

Great Britain

United States

Soviet Union

France Luftwaffe (Germany) The Nazis developed several turbojet aircraft during WWII, including the first ever turbojet, and dual-turbojet aircraft to fly.

Their major aircraft designs were:
Heinkel He-178
Heinkel He-280
Messerschmitt Me-262 Heinkel He-178 On 27th August 1939, the He-178 became the first aircraft to fly using only jet propulsion. It was equipped with one Heinkel HeS 3b centrifugal-flow turbojet engine producing 1000lbs of thrust. Heinkel He-280 In 1941, Heinkel developed the world's first example of a jet fighter. It was a twin-engined, streamlined monoplane capable of reaching speeds of 900km/h. It was equipped with 2 x HeS 8A (109-001A) turbojet engines and armed with 3 x 20mm MG 151 cannons. It was also the first aircraft to utilise an ejection seat. Messerschmitt Me-262 The Me-262 was the He-280's main competitor. Because Heinkel had underestimated fuel consumption, the Me-262 was far more fuel efficient. It was also better armed than the He-280.
In 1944, due to it's speed and armaments it was seen as the ideal defence fighter to ward off the Allies and was ordered into large-scale production. Facts
Number made: 1430
Crew: 1
Power plant: 2 x Junkers Jumo 004B-1 turbojets
Armament: 4 x 30 mm MK 108 cannons, 2 x 550 lb. Bombs, 24 x 2.2 in. R4M rockets Caproni-Campini N1 Experimental aircraft built by the Italian aircraft manufacturer Caproni during WWII.
Considered the first jet-powered airplane to take flight before the Heinkel He 178 was made public.
Technically a "motorjet" aircraft, but mentioned here as it was an important aircraft for gas turbine development.
Never used by the Regia Aeronautica except for demonstration purposes. Nakajima J9Y Kikka Its name means Orange Blossom.
It was Japan’s first jet-powered aircraft, developed late in WWII.
It was faster and better armed than most allied jets, but it was still considered inferior to Nazi aircraft.
Maximum speed of 433mph (695km/h)
Range of 586 miles (937km) Royal Air Force The RAF were involved in several turbojet
projects during, and slightly after WWII.
These included:

Gloster-Whittle E28 39
Gloster Meteor
de Havilland Vampire
Saunders-Roe Sr.A/1 Turboshafts Ramjets Turbofans Afterburners Gloster Whittle E28 39 It was an experimental prototype which lead to the development of the Gloster Meteor, which would become the first British jet fighter to see active service.
It was never fitted with any armaments nor saw any active service.
Maximum speed of 466mph (746km/h). Gloster Meteor It was the British and allies’ first operational jet.
It saw limited action in WW2 for the Royal Air Force (RAF), however, the Royal Australian Air Force used it to provide a significant contribution in the Korean War.
It was the first jet aircraft of any sort to arrive in NZ. It was loaned to the Royal New Zealand Air Force by the RAF.
Argentina, Egypt, and Israel also flew Meteors in regional conflicts.
Maximum speed of 598mph (962kmph) in 1945 de Havilland Vampire Commercial Development of Turbojets The turbojet had revolutionised the jet fighter, and having seen this, civil aircraft manufacturers looked to use this type of engine to make larger and faster commercial aircraft. De Havilland Comet The De Havilland Comet was the first jet airliner and first took to the skies on the 27th of July 1949.
The comet, having a pressurised cabin, could fly to far higher altitudes making it much more efficient and significantly faster than propeller aircraft.
The Comet could operate up to a service ceiling of 42,000 feet, which aided commercial development of aviation by helping to decongest airspace below 10,000feet. Avro C-102 Jetliner The Avro C-102 Jetliner was Canada’s first jet aircraft as well as the first regional jet in the world.
Taking to the sky in 1949, just 13 days after the De Havilland Comet, it was also the first commercial passenger jet to fly over the United States.
The 102 was powered by four Rolls-Royce Derwent turbojet engines making it fast with a cruising speed of just under 680km/h. Concorde Concorde first took to the skies on March 2nd 1969.
Powered by four afterburning Roll-Royce/Snecma Olympus turbojets, the aircraft was designed for high altitude, supersonic flight.
Ceiling of 60,000 feet.
Maximum cruising speed of Mach 2.04 (2,179km/h).
Turbojets are more efficient at higher altitudes where the air is far thinner, which made it the most suitable engine type for the Concorde. Globalisation Comparisons Aircraft design A turboprop engine is like any other gas turbine, except it uses torque, not thrust, in order to generate propulsion. 1. Air is taken in through the inlet, and slowed. This increases both temperature (T) and pressure (P). 2. Air then enters the
compressor where blades
compress the air further,
greatly increasing T and P. 3. The air is then mixed with fuel in the combustion chamber, greatly increasing T, but at constant pressure. 4. The burned fuel-air mixture then expands through the turbine
which is rotated by the gas. The velocity of of this turbine is then translated back through a shaft to the compressor, and the reduction gear. 5. The reduction gear reduces the RPM of the turbine and translates this to the propeller. Reduction gears can decrease RPM by up to 15 times. The primary reason turboprops are used is because of their exceptional fuel efficiency. Turboprop Development 1930s 1950s 1940s Today Sir Frank Whittle In 1930, Sir Frank Whittle patented his design for
a turboprop engine. György Jendrassik Hungarian designer, György Jendrassik, finished the world's first turboprop engine. The engine, named the Jendrassik Cs-1, was intended to power a bomber aircraft for the Hungarian Air Force. However the engine was not ready for operation in the war and when it was first run in 1940 the engine severely underperformed. The engine could only manage an output of 400 horsepower, far short of its expected output of 1000 horsepower. Rolls-Royce The next attempt at designing and constructing a turboprop engine was made by British engineering company Rolls-Royce. Designers at Rolls-Royce took the idea that that all that would be needed to convert the turbojet into the turboprop was essentially the installation of a reduction gearbox and five blade propeller attached to front of the engine. After undergoing hundreds of hours of testing the Rolls-Royce RB 50 Trent turboprop engine was affixed to the British fighter aircraft, the Gloster Meteor ready for flying tests. The aircraft took it's first flight on October 20th 1945, making it the first ever flight of the turboprop engine. After the breakthrough of the RB 50 engine in 1945, the turboprop then looked to enter into commercial aviation. It did so in 1948 with the Rolls-Royce RB 53 Dart turboprop. This engine, successor to the RB 50, powered the Vickers Viscount. This had its maiden flight in 1948, and moved into full operations for British Airways in 1953. This began the commercial era of the turboprop engine. Vickers Viscount This was the second British jet fighter to enter service, first flying on the 20th of September 1943.
It was equipped with 4 x 20mm Hispano cannons and could reach a top speed of 540mph (869kph).
The Vampire was fast and manoeuverable and equipped the first RAF aerobatic display team.
The Vampire also served the Royal New Zealand Air Force for many years, and was our nations first operational jet fighter. Saunders Roe SR.A/1 The Saunders-Roe SR.A/1 was designed by Sir Arthur Gouge and Henry Knowler.
It was uncommon because, not only was it a flying-boat fighter, it was both the first jet-powered flying-boat and the first jet-powered flying-boat fighter.
It was also rather large for a fighter aircraft. Bell P-59 Airacomet In October 1942, the Bell-built General Electric powered P-59 became the first American Jet.
It was equipped with 1 x 37mm M4 cannon, 3 x .5in Machine guns and has a 409mph (658kph) top speed.
Unfortunately, it performed disappointingly and never saw combat. Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star was designed by Kelly Johnson’s Skunk Works in 1943.
It originally had a British engine, but only came into its own when refitted with the all-American Allison J33.
The United State’s first operational jet fighter.
It was equipped with 6 x .5in Machine guns and had a 558mph (898kph) top speed. Dassault MD 450 Ouragan The MD 450 Ouragan was designed by Marcel Dassault.
It made its maiden flight at Melun-Villaroche on February 28, 1949. This was the French Air Forces’ first jet aircraft to be designed and produced in France.
For two years (1955 and 1956), the Ouragan was the aircraft of the Patrouille de France aerobatics (The French aerobatic team). Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-9 Russian Aircraft Mikoyan-Gurevich Mig-9 was a first-generation Soviet turbojet fighter and attack aircraft.
It was equipped with 2 x Rd-20 (BMW 003A) turbojet engines developing 1.746lbs of thrust each, 1 x 37 mm cannon extending from nose intake divider, and 2 x 23 mm cannons extending from the under side of the nose intake.
It produced a 566mph (911kph) top speed. Yakovlev Yak-17 The Yakovlev Yak-17 was a second-generation jet fighter from the Yakovlev bureau.
It was equipped with 2 x 23mm cannons, and a Klimov RD- 10A turbojet generating 2.205lbs of thrust and producing a 466mph (750kph) top speed.
The Yakovlev Yak 17 became the first jet-powered fighter of several Eastern European countries outside of the Soviet Union.
Unfortunately it had very poor endurance. Modern day Revival Due to escalating petrol prices, airlines are now ordering turboprops because they are cheaper to run on medium distance routes with less than 100 passengers.
Turboprops are more efficient than jets because they do not need to climb to the same altitude to be at peak performance. This is considerable because the climb is the most petrol consuming part of the journey. Spools Bypass Ratio Turbofans can be split into categories according
to the number of spools and
the engine's bypass
ratio Turbofans are used because they offer better fuel and noise efficiency without the compromise of thrust. Commercial viability In the commercial arena of aviation high-bypass turbofans are the primary engine of choice, particularly for large commercial operators. This is because high-bypass turbofans boast exceptional fuel economy, whilst delivering transonic speeds and 20-30dB less noise than low-bypass turbofans (let alone turbojets). This allows companies to market themselves as environmentally responsible as well as bypass certain noise restraints. Airbus A380 The Airbus A380 has delivered the lowest fuel burn and operating costs in commercial aviation – all while flying higher, further and quieter.
It entered service on October 2007 and is powered by the fuel efficient Rolls-Royce Trent 900 Turbofan, which is now the most environmentally friendly power plant available to A380 operators. Boeing 787 Dreamliner The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is powered by the new Rolls-Royce Turbofan Engine Trent 1000 and travels the same distance as the A380 at the same speed but carries half the passengers.
The main innovation of Boeing 787 Dreamliner is bringing big-jet ranges to mid-size aircraft.
The 787 provides airlines with unmatched fuel efficiency, resulting in exceptional environmental performance. The aeroplane uses 20 per cent less fuel than today's similarly sized aircraft. It will also travel at a similar speed to today's fastest wide body jets. Military viability A jet fighter cannot afford to have a high bypass turbofan engine simply because they are physically too large and in turn creates large amounts of drag.
Turbofans get the majority of their thrust from the fan at the front of the engine that is driven by the engines turbines. This fan becomes less effective at higher altitudes where the air is thinner much the same as a propeller is less effective at high altitudes. To combat both these issues engine manufacturers decided to compromise efficiency for effectiveness by using low bypass turbofans in military jets.
The low bypass means that more of the air coming into the engine goes through the engine itself rather than the fan forcing it around the engine. Turbojets are more suited for supersonic and high altitude flight but a low bypass turbofan is much like a turbojet but still more efficient. Boeing F/A - 18 Hornet The Boeing F/A – 18 Hornet is a multirole twin turbofan jet fighter aircraft.
It is capable of supersonic speeds of around Mach 1.8, has a service ceiling of 50,000 feet, a combat range of over 500 nautical miles and a flight range of 2000 miles.
The Hornet is powered by two General Electric F404-GE-402 turbofan engines. These engines were designed specifically for the F/A – 18 and are low bypass turbofans with a ratio of 0.34:1. Turboshafts are essentially a gas turbine that powers something other than a propeller and does not use exhaust thrust. They are commonly used on helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Turboshafts and helicopters Turboshafts are used in helicopters principally because they boast lower weight to power ratios. This means that they can carry more equipment or personnel. Their higher operating costs, however, mean that generally their use is limited to commercial, search and rescue, and military operators. Turboshafts and UAVs Turboshafts are used on UAVs for similar reasons as they are used on helicopters. UAVs need to be very light and turboshafts provide better weight to power ratios than any other engine. Not only this but turboshafts higher reliability, longer engine life, less noise and vibration, reduced maintenance, and superior compatibility with kerosene-based jet fuels. All these things add up to make turboshafts a more operationally viable engine for UAVs. Ramjets are basically jet engines with no moving parts, they operate using continuous combustion. Hypersonic flight The sole reason ramjets are used is to go hypersonic.
No other engine is capable of this. The downside of this is the sheer amount of fuel that must be burnt in order to maintain such a speed. Drag at hypersonic speeds is exceptional. Also ramjet aircraft need an auxiliary power unit to get them supersonic before they can start using their ramjet. Afterburners A key feature found on many military jets, mostly jet fighter aircraft, is afterburners. Both turbofan and turbojet engines can have an afterburner system which gives increased thrust usually for a short period of time (and usually on take-off or when high speed flight is necessary). An afterburner works by injecting fuel into the exhaust stream and burning it with the remaining oxygen. This reaction causes high levels of increased thrust referred to as “wet thrust”. However while using afterburners provides highly increased levels of thrust it is also highly inefficient and uses high levels of fuel so are only used for short bursts when necessary. Each gas turbine has its own area in which it is most applicable. Speed and fuel efficiency Although all gas turbine engines operate in a relatively similar manner, they all have different speeds where they are best at. Here is a diagram of this. Note that turboshafts have been excluded because they are used rotorcraft and comparison would not be fair. >Mach 2 Mach 1-2 450mph - Mach 1 <450mph Turboprops High-bypass turbofans Turbojets or low-bypass turbofans Ramjets The development of gas turbines influenced globalisation Gas turbines and globalisation Gas turbines reduced travel times significantly in comparison to boats, and other forms of transport to go overseas. They also have become more and more efficient which means that companies have lower operating costs, and subsequently Low Cost Carriers have emerged. In essence globalisation would be largely impossible without the advent of gas turbines. As gas turbines evolved, so too did the aircraft that used them. Delta wing The main advantage to the delta wing design is its greater efficiency at high speeds such as transonic and supersonic flight. Despite the many advantages of delta wings, the design has even more drawbacks. One example is the design requires high landing and take-off speeds and even longer runways. Other flaws include increased drag at certain angles and instability at low speeds and high angles of attack. Swept wing The swept wing was designed as a means of reducing wave drag on an aircraft travelling at transonic speeds. It has been such an effective design when travelling at the higher speeds that it has become an almost conventional design on the majority of jet powered aircraft Forward-swept wing The swept wing design was originally designed to increase the manoeuvrability of aircraft at transonic speeds and to a point it achieved this, in fact one design produced a 15% greater ratio of lift to drag in the transonic region. But due to many issues such as instability at low speeds and a high stress level on the airframe, the forward swept wing appears to be a dead concept. Variable sweep wing The variable-sweep wing is a design that has the ability to change the angle of the wings for greater efficiency at both high and low speeds. For example, an aircraft with a variable-sweep wing can use conventional straight wings which allow for short take-offs, short landings, low speed, and fuel-efficient flights, while maintaining the ability to use swept wings for high speed, supersonic flight. Winglets The winglet is another important design. It was first used in the 1970’s by NASA and can simply be described as vertical extensions to the wingtips. Its primary use consists of converting wasted energy from the wingtip vortex into thrust. In fact NASA claims that the use of the winglet could improve cruising efficiencies from between 6% and 9%. Although factors such as weather, engine efficiency and the basic design of an aircraft can limit the percentage of improved efficiency. Another advantage of the winglet design is the reduction in drag. Flying wings The development of wing integration or “flying wing” aircraft has become a very successful innovation in aircraft design. Wing integration is a very unique design in which there is no defined tail section or fuselage.
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