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Copy of Using Literacy in the Content Areas
Transcript of Copy of Using Literacy in the Content Areas
Connecting Reading and Writing
An in-depth study of a topic that integrates reading and writing with social studies, science, and other curricular areas.
Reading Trade Books
Teachers use trade books when teaching thematic units.
Students make connections to their own life experiences and background knowledge as they read them.
Writing as a Learning Tool
The focus is on using writing to help
students think and learn.
Writing to Demonstrate Learning
Students research topics and then use writing to show what they learned.
This writing is more formal.
Content-area textbooks are important resources, but they are not a complete instructional program.
Because textbook reading is more challenging, teachers need to support their students' reading so that they'll be successful.
When students read about a topic before writing, their writing is enhanced because of what they learned.
When students write about the ideas in a book they are reading, their comprehension is deepened because they're exploring big ideas and relationships among those ideas.
Making this connection is especially important when students are learning content-area information because of the added challenges.
Teachers collect text sets of books and other reading materials on topics to use in teaching thematic units.
They incorporate different genres, a range of reading levels, and multimedia resources that present a variety of perspectives.
It is important to include books/materials that ELLs and struggling readers can read.
atlases and maps
poems and songs
Teachers model quality writing with stories, nonfiction books, and poems.
How to use Mentor Texts:
Teacher reads texts to students.
As the teacher reads, she points out specific features such as adding vivid verbs, writing from a different perspective, etc.
Students imitate the feature in brief compositions.
Features of Content-Area Textbooks
Headings and subheading to direct readers' attention to the big ideas
Photographs and drawing to illustrate the big ideas
Charts and maps to provide detailed information visually
Margin notes to provide supplemental information or to direct readers to additional information on a topic
Making Textbooks More Comprehensible
Used to record and react to what students are learning in other content areas.
They write in journals to discover gaps in their knowledge and to explore relationships between what they're learning and their past experiences.
Students divide their journal pages into two columns and write different types of info in each.
Stage 1: Prereading
Activate and build students' background knowledge about the topic
Introduce big ideas and technical words
Set purposes for reading
Preview the text
Stage 2: Reading
1. Ensure that students can read the assignment
2. Assist students in identifying the big ideas
3. Help students organize ideas and details
Stage 3: Responding
1. Clarify students' misunderstandings
2. Help students summarize the big ideas
3. Make connections to students lives.
Response activities may include: quickwrites, learning logs, and double-entry journals.
Stage 4: Exploring
1. Have students study vocabulary words
2. Review the big ideas
3. Help students connect the big ideas
Stage 5: Applying
1. Expand students' knowledge about the topic
2. Personalize students' learning
3. Expect students to share their knowledge
Learning How to Study
Students should do the following:
1. Restate the big ideas in their own words
2. Make connections between the big ideas
3. Add details to each big idea
4. Ask questions about the importance of the ideas
5. Monitor whether they understand the ideas
Note taking is extremely important!
Prereading activities may include: K-W-L charts, anticipation guides, exclusion brainstorming, and word walls
Reading activities may include: reading the chapter aloud before independent reading, partner reading, dividing the chapter into sections and assigning groups of students to read each section and report back to the class
Exploring activities may include: word walls, poster making, word sorts, data charts, and semantic feature analysis charts.
Application activities may include: writing reports, essays, creating powerpoint presentations, multigenre projects, or presenting oral reports
How to Develop a
1. Determine the focus
2. Collect a text set of books
3. Coordinate content-area textbook readings
4. Locate Internet and other multimedia materials
5. Design instructional activities
6. Identify topics for minilessons
7. Consider ways to differentiate instruction
8. Brainstorm possible projects
9. Plan for assessment
The author assumes the role of a character and writes a series of diary entries from his or her point of view.
They are rich with historical details and feature examples of both the vocabulary and the sentence structure of the period.
Students write on a topic for 10 minutes, letting thoughts flow without focusing on mechanics or revisions.
"I Am..." Poems
Poems for Two Voices
Different genres unified by a repetend
Highlighted words to identify key academic vocabulary
An index for locating specific information
A glossary to assist readers
Study questions at the end of the chapter to check comprehension
Textbooks have traditionally been the centerpiece of social studies and science classes, but they are often unappealing, too difficult to understand, and cover too many topics superficially. Teachers must make the text comprehensible and supplement students' learning.