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D’Augelli’s Model of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Development
Transcript of D’Augelli’s Model of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Development
Social Identity Development
“the process by which people come to understand their social identities (ethnicity, race, gender, sexual orientation, and others) and how these identities affect other aspects of their lives” (McEwen, 2003,b).
“Many students begin or accelerate exploration of their sexual identities during college” (D’Augelli, 1996).
“Since research indicates that as many as 10 percent of all college student identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual and that others may be questioning their sexuality (Ellis, 1996), student affairs educators must understand the developmental challenges these students face and provide appropriate support to assist them in navigating what is often a hostile environment (Evans & Rankin, 1998; Rankin, 2003).
Presented By: Dawnjene DeLong, Brittany Dotson, Alie Gahris, Frank Maue, and Trisha Stevens
Erickson Psychosocial Stages
Personality develops in a series of stages
Lifelong development process
-Personal subjectivities and actions (i.e. feelings about sexual identity)
-Interactive intimacies (i.e. family, peers, partners)
-Sociohistorical connections (i.e. social norms, policies, laws)
Identity Development Process
D’Augelli identified six interactive processes involved in lesbian, gay, and bisexual identity development.
1. Exiting heterosexual identity
2. Developing a personal lesbian/gay/bisexual identity
3. Developing a lesbian/gay/bisexual social identity
4. Becoming a lesbian/ gay/bisexual offspring
5. Developing a lesbian/gay/bisexual intimacy status
6. Entering a lesbian/gay/ bisexual community
Professor of Human Development and Family Studies
Anthony R D'Augelli
“D’Augelli (1994a) used a life span approach to suggest that development occurs in six areas of one’s life at varying times as a result of how individuals interpret their experiences and the decisions they make, their interactions with others who are important to them, and the cultural, historical, and geographical circumstances in which they find themselves.” (p 231)
Studies to Support D'Augelli's Model
1. Evans and Broido (1999)
2. Evans and Herriott (2004)
3. Stevens (2004)
4. Love, Bock, Jannarone, and Richardson (2005)
5. Bilodeau (2005)
Faculty and Staff for Human Rights
Queer Writers Group
Straight Against Hate
LGBTQA Alumni Council
Pride and Identity Coalition
Programs and Events
Mentor Program (can choose a peer or faculty/staff mentor)
LGBTQA Internship Program
Coming Out Week (Oct 11)
Peers for Pride
LGBTQA Study Abroad
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
Understanding the T in LGBTQA: Serving Transgender
LGBT Patient Mental Health and Suicide Risk Assessment and Prevention
Getting to know LGBTQA
Local and Community Organizing for Social Change
Gender Inclusivity and Positivity
Allies and the LGBTQA community
Safe Space Training
LGBTQA Internship Program
Safe Employers List
Free HIV testing on certain days and times
Addresses socio-cultural context, but not specifically psychosocial identities.
The interplay between sexual identity and other social identities is not immediately addressed by D’Augelli’s theory (Bilodeau & Renn, 2005).
Further research should still be done on societal influences on sexual identity development (Evans et al., 2010).
Transgender identities were not discussed in the original theory.
Bilodeau has since conducted research on transgendered students using D’Augelli’s theory (Bilodeau, 2005).
Many studies on sexual identity have relied on retrospective self-report.
Bieschke (as cited in Evans et al., 2010) states theories should work towards encompassing all sexual identities: gay, lesbian, bisexual and heterosexual (Evans et al., 2010).
Implications for Student Affairs
D’Augelli’s life span perspective suggests that all students of all ages will face challenges in their sexual identity development.
Campus climates should be supportive because environmental factors play a large role in positive sexual identity development.
Student affairs practitioners should ensure campus policies, programs and curriculum include gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender content (Evans et al., 2010).
When working with students one on one remember no student takes the same developmental path.
Use of Center's library resources
Measure placement within Internship and Study Abroad Program
Bilodeau, B. (2005). Beyond the gender binary: A case study of two transgender students
at a Midwestern research university. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 3(1), 29-44. doi:10.1300/J367v03n01_05
Eastern Michigan University. (2013). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Resource
Center. Retrieved from http://www.emich.edu/lgbtrc/programs.php
Evans, N. J., Forney, D. S., Florence, M. G., Patton, L. D. & Renn, K. A. (2010). Sexual identity
development. In D. Brightman & E. Null (Eds.), Student development in college (pp.305-326). San Francisco, CA: Josey Bass.
Evans, N. J., & Rankin, S. (1998). Heterosexism and campus violence: Assessment and
intervention strategies. In A. M. Hoffman, J. H. Schuh, & R. H. Fenske (Eds.), Violence on campus: Defining the problems, strategies for action (pp. 169-186). Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.
[Gay couple photograph]. Retrieved November 1, 2013 from http://
Lovetsky, D. (2013). Gay rights activists shout slogans during their authorized rally in
St.Petersburg, Russia [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://libguides.gwumc.edu/content.php?pid=168844&sid=1421729
Mallow610 (2012, February). Coming Out-Live. Retrieved November 1, 2013, from http://
McEwen, M. K., (2003b). New perspectives on identity development. In S. R. Komives,
(203-233). Sand Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Michigan State University. (2010). Lesbian, Bisexual, Gay, Transgender Resource Center.
Retrieved from http://lbgtrc.msu.edu/programs-and-services/new2u
Texas A&M University. (2012). Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual & Transgender Resource Center.
Retrieved from http://studentlife.tamu.edu/glbt.programs/events
TheSavageone79 (2013, January). Max’s Gay Identity Crisis (Happy Endings). Retrieved
November 1, 2013, from
The University of Texas Austin. (2013). Gender and Sexuality Center. Retrieved from
The University of Kanas. (2013). Student Involvement and Leadership Center. Retrieved
Towson University. (2013). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Student Development.
Retrieved from http://www.towson.edu/lgbt/
Trickett, E., Watts, R., & Birman, D. (1994). Human diversity : perspectives on people in
context / Edison J. Trickett, Roderick J. Watts, Dina Birman, editors. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass, c1994.
University of Virginia. (2013). Office of the Dean of Students LGBTQ Student Services.
Retrieved from http://www.virginia.edu/deanofstudents/lgbtq/
The University of Louisville. (2013). The LGBT Center ay University of Louisville. Retrieved
LGBTQA Student Community
Due to the complexities of six interactive processes, along with some of the sociohistorical connections that surround the LGBTQA community, those that identify as LGBTQA not only from various people, but they also need a physical space that they can relate to and identify with as they explore these processes. On top of providing this support, the center can help along the development of several of these processes, including Developing a lesbian/gay/bisexual social identity and Entering a lesbian/gay/bisexual community.
A center, rather than a specific program, was designed to address the needs of LGBTQA students no matter where they are in D'Augelli's development process.
Large Competitive Liberal Arts Institution
LGBTQA Center Located within the Student Union
Raise Awareness about LGBTQA Issues
Provide a Safe Space
Students will develop empathy for the LGBTQA community
Students will become advocates (Advocacy Training)
Students will be more willing to self-disclose their sexual orientation
Students will gain an understanding of current LGBTQA issues
LGBTQA Student Community
Margaret is a college student who, in the last couple of years, has started considering herself a lesbian. However, she is struggling to be more publicly ‘out’ than she currently is. Only a handful of people know she considers herself to be a lesbian, and she had believed that she would gain the confidence over the past couple of years to be more public about her sexual identity, but that has not been the case. One of her friends that knows, Jessie, is also a lesbian, and the two have become close in recent months. Jessie wishes to establish a romantic relationship with Margaret, but Margaret isn’t willing to commit to that due to her struggles with publicly coming out to her peers. On top of that, she still is figuring out how to tell her parents, who are coming to the university to visit her this weekend, and she doesn’t know if they will accept her announcement.
What three processes are present in this situation?