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US History - 5.1 - 5.2 - 5.3 - Shaping a New Nation

USH 5.1 through 5.3


on 27 August 2014

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Transcript of US History - 5.1 - 5.2 - 5.3 - Shaping a New Nation

Most of the rights forbid conduct which was prevalent under the monarchy
Americans’ fear of a powerful government is clear in the rights
Bill of Rights
People such as Jefferson, Henry, and Madison, wanted the central government to only take the powers expressly written in the Constitution.
They became anti-Federalist (Democratic-Republicans)
Federal or States’ Rights
State constitutions limited the amount of power given to their governors because they were afraid of giving too much power to one individual
Now some states feared giving too much power to a central government
Federal or States’ Rights?
Some states, like VA and NY, refused to ratify the Constitution without a Bill of Rights.
They were afraid that the new government would take away some rights if they were not included
Although there were political parties in Britain, no one in America thought that they would evolve here
Differences of opinion would divide the country into two factions.
Federalists and Anti-Federalists
Florida gets 27 (25 rep+2 sen)
A candidate needs 270+ to win the election
If no one gets that number, the House decides, 1 vote per state.
If there is a tie, the president of the Senate (VP) chooses
Electoral College
Voters do not vote for president, we vote for electors.
Today they are representatives of the political parties
Electoral College
The federal and state governments share some powers
Both can tax residents
Both can build roads
Both can borrow money
The framers also divided power between the federal government and the state governments
The federal government can coin money and declare war
The state governments can make marriage laws
Each branch checks on the power of the other branches and has the responsibility to balance the power
Checks and Balances
Fearful of giving one person or a small group too much power, the framers decided to divide the powers among 3 branches of government.
Each branch has their own duties and responsibilities
Separation of Powers
Proponents of state’s rights, did not want to give too much power to a strong federal government
After Shay’s Rebellion, they realized they would have to give authority to a central government for their own protection
How much power?
The compromise allowed slave states to count 3/5s of their slaves toward population
It allowed the next 20 years to import slaves
3/5 Compromise
Southern states, some with up to 43% of their population made up of slaves, wanted to count each toward representation in the House
The northern/free states opposed.
What to do about Slaves?
Roger Sherman of CT suggested a 2 house legislature, using both plans
Great Compromise
William Paterson’s plan wanted all states to have the same votes, regardless of size or population.
Large states opposed this
MA had 10x the population of GA
New Jersey Plan
Edmund Randolph brought a plan designed by James Madison to the convention that gave additional power to large states
It asked for representatives to be assigned by state population
Virginia Plan
They came from large and small states
They came from populated and sparsely populated states
They came from agricultural and manufacturing states
They came from slave and free states
Constitutional Convention
The framers of the Constitution were mostly in their 30s and 40s
They were highly educated, white men
They had vast experience in their state governments and business
Constitutional Convention
Another call went out for a Constitutional Convention
This time 12 of the states sent delegates
The meeting was held in Philadelphia, from May – September 1787
Constitutional Convention
Daniel Shays led a farmer rebellion over high taxation and that taxes had to be paid in gold
They rioted to keep courts closed so their farms could not be foreclosed on
Shays Rebellion
Recognizing the weaknesses, a meeting was called in Annapolis in the late 1786
Five states sent delegates.
Clearly, weaknesses were better than losing state power
Weaknesses of Articles
States who had not paid off their pre-war debt wanted high taxes from all states to pay off the national debt
Some states had paid their debts and did not want to be financially responsible for other states
Problems under the Articles
Sections of land were reserved for churches, with some sold for a minister’s salary
Sect. 16 was set aside for schools
2-3 were set aside to sell for revenue
Land with water was more valuable
Land Ordinances
The Northwest Land Ordinance or 1787:
dividing the land into territories
Electing an assembly
Admission of new states
Land Ordinances
The Congress established the Land Ordinance of 1785
It established a plan to survey and record their findings
Land Ordinances
The representatives agreed on one thing:
Most people were too ignorant to give too much power
A republic, rather than a democracy, would fix that problem
Preparing a New Government
Representatives from the 13 new states faced an incredible challenge:
Unite into a country without giving up any state powers – State’s Rights
Devise a plan that meets the needs of very different needs
Preparing a New Government
8. No excessive bail or punishment
9. Rights of people
10. Rights of states

All ratified in 1791

Bill of Rights
1. Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition and religion
2. Right to bear arms
3. No quartering of soldiers
4. No unreasonable search
5. No self incrimination
6. Speedy trial
7. Right to trial by jury
Bill of Rights
Anti-federalists demanded a bill of rights, like the ones in England
To assure ratification by all states, the Federalists agreed
Bill of Rights
People, such as Washington, Adams, and Hamilton, favored giving the federal government as much power as it needed.
They were called Federalists
Federal or States’ Rights
Ratifying the Constitution
Chapter 5
Section 3
Shaping a New Nation
Each state gets electoral votes, based on their population
Number of representatives + number of senators = votes
Large states get more
Small states get a minimum of 3
Electoral College
Many of the framers felt that the ‘average’ American did not have the skills necessary to elect a president
They established a ‘safety net’ to make sure a competent person held the office, regardless of how the public voted
Electoral College
Legislative – make laws
Executive – enact laws
Judicial – check constitutionality of legislation
Separation of Powers
A compromise on this issue was reached for 2 reasons:
The framers did not want to alienate the southern states even before the government was written
Slavery was dying out
(they had no way of knowing that Whitney would invent the gin)
3/5 Compromise
The upper house, Senate, all states receive the same number of votes (2), regardless of size or population
The lower house, House of Representatives, receives delegates based on population
Great Compromise
Smaller states objected

With the Virginia Plan, just NY, PA, and VA could outnumber the other 10 states
Virginia Plan
The rioting continued for months

The MA militia was helpless
Shay’s Rebellion
Britain did not leave their forts in the west, as per the Treaty of Paris
Spain closed the port of New Orleans to all American shipping
Paper money was useful but lost value
Congress had no authority to deal with foreign nations
Problems under the Articles
Each state, regardless of size, had 1 vote
All 13 states were needed to approve amendments
America owed $190 million with no ability to pay
Problems under the Articles
Land Ordinances
How would representatives be chosen? How many?
How would power be divided?
Who gets the western lands?
How will the western lands be sold and governed?
Congressional Congress
In a republic, citizens select representatives to rule for them.
Much of their ideas come from Adam Smith.
Preparing a New Government
Since the 1770s, the colonies began working together to fight their common enemy
Now they had to work together to plan a government that would meet the needs of colonies that differed economically, socially and politically.
Preparing a New Government
Unit 2
Chapter 5

A New Nation

Checks and Balances
Judicial Branch
Declares laws unconstitutional
Judicial Review
Executive Branch
Can veto
Appoints members to Supreme Court
Moves troops
Legislative Branch
Can override
Presidential vetoes
Confirms appointments
Declares war
Chapter 5
Section 2
Drafting a Constitution
The men wore wool suits
To stop the bugs and noise from entering, and their conversations from being overheard, they closed the windows
Debates were loud and heated
Constitutional Convention
But what is a Republic?
Democracy... THE dirty word
Two types of democracy:
Representative Democracy (Romans)
the People choose representatives to
govern for them

Direct Democracy (Greeks)
everybody votes
majority rule
Why won't Direct Democracy work for a whole nation?
Articles of Confederation
Our new government!
So.... To Simplify


Writing Activity
Take the role of a delegate
Take the role of a delegate and write a rebuttal to the Articles of Confederation.

Address your letter to the other delegates who approved the Articles.

In your letter, include AT LEAST 4 weaknesses of the Articles.

For each weakness, make 1 prediction as to something bad that may result from that.
Full transcript