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Intrinsic Motivation

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Sarah BruBaker

on 21 June 2014

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Transcript of Intrinsic Motivation

Competence
Definition: sense of feeling that you are performing your work activities well.
Invokes a sense of pride
Examples?
Intrinsic Motivation
Sarah brubaker, Kathleen Carmosin, Alexis Carrier, Michelle Dudgeon, and Katie Simpson
ELEMENTS
Meaningfulness
Choice
Progress
Introduction to Intrinsic Motivation

Activity
Questions?
References
Herzberg's Motivating Factors and Hygiene Factors
Achievement
Recognition
Work itself
Responsibility
Advancement
Growth
(Kettner, 2013, p.194)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
"A satisfied need is not a motivator"
(Kettner, 2013, p. 192)
vs.
Intrinsic: Motivate people to work hard
Extrinsic: Keep down level of dissatisfaction
Salary
Benefits
Working Conditions
Job security
[Organizational Policy]
[Supervision]
[Status]
[Interpersonal Relationships]
Meeting personal needs
Enhancing quality of work
Access to achievement and rewards
Fairness and equity
Effective reward system
Research Findings and Evidenced-Based Practice
"The Candle Experiment"
Created in 1945 by Gestalt Psychologist Karl Duncker as a cognitive performance test
Ariely, D., Kamenica, E.,∗& Prelec, D. (2008). Man’s search for meaning: The case of Legos. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 67: 671-677
Ariely, D., Gneezy, U., Loewenstein, G. & Maza, N. (2005). Large Stakes and big mistakes. Research Review. Jul-Dec, Issue 4, p11-13.
Credit Union Magazine. (2011). Pink's Motivation Principles. Credit Union Magazine; Aug 2011; 77, 8
Duncker, K. & Lees, L. S. (1945). On problem-solving. Psychological Monographs, Vol 58(5), 1945, i-113.
Glucksberg, S. (1962). "The influence of strength of drive on functional fixedness and perceptual recognition". Journal of Experimental Psychology 63: 36-41.
Kettner, P. (2013). Achieving excellence in the management of human service organizations (2nd ed). Pearson: Boston, MA.
Pink, D. (2009). The puzzle of motivation. [Transcript]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_pink_on_motivation/transcript
Thomas, K. (2000). Intrinsic motivation at work: Building energy & commitment. Berrett-Koehler Publishers: San Francisco.
"Search for Meaning Experiments"
Three responses for completed assignment
Ignored
Acknowledged
Shredded
Individuals who were minimally acknowledged worked longer for less money

(Ariely et al., 2008)
Meaningful vs. Sisyphus
Participants in Meaningful setting made more bionicles and more money (despite being paid less for each bionicle made)
"Choking Under Pressure Experiments"
24 MIT students
Solve Matrices in four minutes (Cognitive)
Alternate Pressing two keys in four minutes (Physical Effort)
Pay incentives increased performance for the physical effort task
Pay incentives decreased performance for the cognitive task
(Ariely et al., 2005)
(Duncker, 1945; Glucksburg, 1962)
*Main point of discussion: Higher pay incentives lead to worse cognitive performance
Intrinsic Motivation at Work:
Building Energy & Commitment
Main Theoretical Points:

Extrinsic Rewards are no longer enough.
Includes salaries, bonuses, commissions, perks, benefits, and cash rewards
Intrinsic Rewards include elements such as pride of workmanship or sense of helping a customer.
Workers in the 21st century now need to be more self-managing (requires more initiative and commitment)
People have a need for purpose in the work that they do
People care about more than money and self-interest at work
Intrinsic motivation involves rewards you are getting right now
Intrinsic rewards are about emotions
Doing "the right thing" makes people feel good
(Thomas, 2000)
Intrinsic Motivation
Focus Moving into the Corporate World
Dan Pink's principles of motivating employees:

Autonomy: Give staff more independence to invent their own solutions to company issues.
Mastery: People love to get better at things. So, give constant feedback.
Purpose: Tell employees why they are completing certain tasks, using the purpose motive, not the profit motive.


(Credit Union Magazine, 2011, p. 12)
"There is a mismatch between what science knows and what business does."
(Pink, 2009)
Brief Review of Theories of Motivation
(Kettner, 2013, p. 190)
More Theories of Motivation
McGregor's Theory Y
Herzberg's Two-factor theory of satisfaction and motivation
Achievement- motivated entrepreneurial model
Expectancy theory
Reinforcement theory
Equity theory
(Kettner, 2013)
Glucksburg used it in 1962:
paid versus non-paid participants
filled versus non-filled tack box
Non-paid participants performed faster when box was filled
Definition: Sense of accomplishment one feels from achieving the purpose
Involves the feeling work is moving forward
Examples?
Final step is to track self-management progress
Questions to ask yourself:
Is the purpose being realized or not, and how quickly?
How is it going?
Am I the only one seeing a change or are the changes being noticed by others?
Most intense feelings when purpose is achieved
Smallest portion of time on a task i.e. Olympics
Takes reinforcement when have challenges & celebrate "little wins"
If no sense of progress, believe at a standstill
Rate of progress
Swift use phrases: stepping out, cooking, smoking
Slow use phrases: plodding, barely making headway
VS.
(Thomas, 2000)
(Thomas, 2000)
(Thomas, 2000)
(Thomas, 2000)
Five Building Blocks of Progress
1) Collaborative Climate
2) Milestones
3) Celebrations
4) Access to customers
5) Measurement of improvement
(Thomas, 2000)
Get in groups in for presentations
Each group given instructions
Purpose: Attach candle to foam board so the wax does not drip onto table
Going to time how long it takes to be completed
Definition: opportunity a person feels that make sense to you and to perform them in ways that seem appropriate.
Must be able to use own judgment and act out of understanding
Examples?


Emotional charge
Energize and reinforces employee's ongoing engagement
When you feel good about your job, does it have to do with the fact that you're doing something meaningful?
Employee's passions/sense of meaning evolve during the course of their careers.
employing meaningfulness
Individuals select their employment field based on their passion.
Assign employees with tasks that have meaning for them.
Spiritual meaningfulness
Five building Blocks of
meaningfulness
1) A noncynical climate
2) Clearly identified passions
3) An exciting vision
4) Relevant task purposes
5) Whole tasks
Connected to early experiences with authority
Young children comply with choices of adults and teenagers go through rebellion stages
Choice is emotionally loaded and intrinsically rewarding
Exercising choice is central to experience in adulthood, helps control events
Gives a sense of ownership
Added importance when meaningful purpose
Have to weigh positive and negatives of both decisions
Make adjustments and improvise as you see what would work better as the situation progresses
Choices show up in initiative, innovation, creativity, and experimentation
Five building blocks of choice
1) Delegated authority
2) Trust
3) Security
4) A clear purpose
5) Information
Definition: Energy/feeling of being on a track that is worth your time and energy (purposeful).
Moves the self-management process forward.
What gets you passionate about your job?
(Thomas, 2000)
(Thomas, 2000)
(Thomas, 2000)
(Thomas, 2000)
(Thomas, 2000)
(Thomas, 2000)
(Thomas, 2000)
(Thomas, 2000)
(Thomas, 2000)
Competence vs. Incompetence
Why might a staff not perform their job duties competently?

How might they feel?

What does a competent staff member feel?
Research
1950’s- Psychologist Robert W. White
Even infants take pleasure in learning to master skills and do them for the of doing them well
Sense of competence motivation is built into all of us to help us survive and thrive as a species
1970’s- Edward Deci
Sense of competence keep people engaged in anagrams and other puzzles
Reward can even come from watching spectator sports and seeing others master their sport

Five Building blocks of
competence
1) Knowledge
2) Positive feedback
3) Skill recognition
4) Challenge
5) High, noncomparative standards
(Thomas, 2000)
(Thomas, 2000)
Why is Choice important
Making Good CHoices
Why progress matters?
Tracking progress
Full transcript