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Poetry

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Amelia Mildenberger

on 18 March 2013

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Transcript of Poetry

Figures of Speech Poetry Rhythmic Language Poetry Forms Alliteration
Any repetition of the same sound(s) or syllable in two or more words of a line (or line group), which produces a noticeable artistic effect/

Example:

Betty Botter by Mother Goose

Betty Botter bought some butter, but, she said,
the butter's bitter; if I put it in my batter it will
make my batter bitter, but a bit of better butter
will make my batter better. Hyperbole
A bold, deliberate overstatement. Stretches the truth so far it is not expected to be taken literally. It is used to emphasize the truth of a statement.
Example:
I was tickled to death.
Anger made his blood boil.
It happens a million times a day.
I'd give my right arm for a piece of pizza. Metaphor
Word or phrase literally denoting one object or idea is applied to another, thereby suggesting a likeness or analogy between them. Usually takes the form of a direct statement.

Example:
He is a snake.
Winter has a white coat.
Love is a bridge.
All the world's a stage. Onomatopoeia
Using a word to imitate a sound. Used not only for humour and fun but also for special effects.

Example:
Clash
Screech
Tap
Hush
Grind
Bang Personification
A type of metaphor in which distinctive human characteristics are attributed to an animal, object or idea.
Comparing parts of the non-human objects to parts of the human body.

Example:
The flower's dance in the wind.
The tree has branches for arms and leaves for hands. Simile
Comparison between two very different things using "like" or "as".

Example:
Lips as red as a rose.
Walking as quiet as a mouse.
As dead as a doornail. Acrostic
First letter of each line, when read vertically, spell out a work.
The word is usually the subject of the poem.
All lines must relate and enhance the overall sense of unity. Ballad
A short narrative poem with stanzas of two or four lines and usually a refrain. Written in a straight-forward verse, seldom with detail, but always with graphic simplicity and force.
Typically about romance, death, or mystery.
Most ballads are suitable for singing and, while sometimes varied in practice are generally written in ballad meter.
Alternating lines of iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter, with the last words of the second and fourth lines rhyming.
Can have several stanzas, which build upon each other. Cinquain
Composed of five lines, each line has a required number of syllables, and a specific topic.
Line 1:Title (noun)- 2 syllables
Line 2: Description- 4 syllables
Line 3: Action- 6 syllables
Line 4: Feeling (phrase)- 8 syllables
Line 5: Title (synonym for the title)- 2 syllables Common Verse
a quatrain that rhymes ABAB and alternates four-stress and three-stress iambic lines. It is the meter of the hymn and the ballad. Dramatic Dialogue
A poem in which an imagined speaker addresses a silent listener, usually not the reader.
A lyric may also be addressed to someone, but it is short and song like and may appear to address either the reader or the poet. English Sonnet
The Petrarchan sonnet, divides the 14 lines into two sections: an eight-line stanza (octave) rhyming ABBAABBA, and a six-line stanza (sestet) rhyming CDCDCD or CDEEDE
An English Sonnet condenses the 14 lines into one stanza of three quatrains and a concluding couplet, with a rhyme scheme of ABABCDCDEFEFGG. Free Verse
Poetry without rules of form, rhyme, rhythm, or meter.
There must still be structure to the poem. Haiku
Was developed in Japan.
Does not rhyme
Composed of three lines
line one - 5 syllables
line two - 7 syllables
line three - 5 syllables
Themes revolve usually around nature, feelings, and experiences.
Adjectives or "picturesque" words are often used as these words enhance empathetic understanding of feelings, nature, and experiences. Italian Sonnet
Divides the 14 lines into two sections: an eight-line stanza (octave) rhyming ABBAABBA, and a six-line stanza (sestet) rhyming CDDCEE. Limerick
Whimsical poems with five lines:
Lines one, two, and five rhyme with each other.
Lines three and four rhyme with each other.
Rhyme pattern: AABBA EDUCATION
Written by: Ingibo Benson

Education, this, thy craving
Dare be: To acquire
Universal knowledge through
Continuous learning
And with a spirit yearning
To Unveil remote depths . For
In the depth of knowledge great treasures dwell
Or whence comes insight. If
Not wisdom's well?

http://www.poetrysoup.com/poems_poets/poem_detail.aspx?ID=456875 My Father was a Farmer: A Ballad by Robert Burns

MY father was a farmer upon the Carrick border, O,
And carefully he bred me in decency and order, O;
He bade me act a manly part, though I had ne’er a farthing, O;
For without an honest manly heart, no man was worth regarding, O.


Then out into the world my course I did determine, O;
Tho’ to be rich was not my wish, yet to be great was charming, O;
My talents they were not the worst, nor yet my education, O:
Resolv’d was I at least to try to mend my situation, O.


In many a way, and vain essay, I courted Fortune’s favour, O;
Some cause unseen still stept between, to frustrate each endeavour, O;
Sometimes by foes I was o’erpower’d, sometimes by friends forsaken, O;
And when my hope was at the top, I still was worst mistaken, O.
There Was an Old Man in a Tree
Written by: Edward Lear

There was an Old Man in a tree,
Who was horribly bored by a bee.
When they said "Does it buzz?"
He replied "Yes, it does!
It's a regular brute of a bee!"

http://www.poetrysoup.com/famous/poem/16917/There_Was_an_Old_Man_in_a_Tree [i carry your heart with me(i carry it in]
By E. E. Cummings 1894–1962

i carry your heart with me(i carry it in
my heart)i am never without it(anywhere
i go you go,my dear;and whatever is done
by only me is your doing,my darling)
i fear
no fate(for you are my fate,my sweet)i want
no world(for beautiful you are my world,my true)
and it’s you are whatever a moon has always meant
and whatever a sun will always sing is you


here is the deepest secret nobody knows
(here is the root of the root and the bud of the bud
and the sky of the sky of a tree called life;which grows
higher than soul can hope or mind can hide)
and this is the wonder that's keeping the stars apart


i carry your heart(i carry it in my heart)

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/179622 “Hope” is the thing with feathers - (314)
By Emily Dickinson 1830–1886 Emily Dickinson

“Hope” is the thing with feathers -
That perches in the soul -
And sings the tune without the words -
And never stops - at all -


And sweetest - in the Gale - is heard -
And sore must be the storm -
That could abash the little Bird
That kept so many warm -


I’ve heard it in the chillest land -
And on the strangest Sea -
Yet - never - in Extremity,
It asked a crumb - of me.

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/171619 The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
by T.S. Eliot

LET us go then, you and I,
When the evening is spread out against the sky
Like a patient etherized upon a table;
Let us go, through certain half-deserted streets,
The muttering retreats
Of restless nights in one-night cheap hotels
And sawdust restaurants with oyster-shells:
Streets that follow like a tedious argument
Of insidious intent
To lead you to an overwhelming question….
Oh, do not ask, “What is it?”
Let us go and make our visit.

In the room the women come and go
Talking of Michelangelo.

http://www.bartleby.com/198/1.html Amaze
By Adelaide Crapsey 1878–1914 Adelaide Crapsey

I know
Not these my hands
And yet I think there was
A woman like me once had hands
Like these.

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/175528 Selected Haiku by Issa
By Robert Hass

Mosquito at my ear—
does he think
I’m deaf? Italian Sonnet by James DeFord, written in 1997:

Turn back the heart you've turned away
Give back your kissing breath
Leave not my love as you have left
The broken hearts of yesterday
But wait, be still, don't lose this way
Affection now, for what you guess
May be something more, could be less
Accept my love, live for today.
Your roses wilted, as love spurned
Yet trust in me, my love and truth
Dwell in my heart, from which you've turned
My strength as great as yours aloof.
It is in fear you turn away
And miss the chance of love today!

http://examples.yourdictionary.com/sonnet-examples.html Sonnet Number 18:
by William Shakespear

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed,
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed:
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,
Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st,
So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

http://examples.yourdictionary.com/sonnet-examples.html End Rhyme
A rhyme occurring in the terminating word or syllable of one line of poetry with that of another line, as opposed to internal rhyme.
Foot
A unit of rhythm or meter, the division in verse of a group of syllables, one of which is long or accented.
The fundamental components of the foot are the arsis and the thesis.
The most common poetic feet used in English verse are the iamb, anapest, trochee, dactyl and spondee, while in classical verse there are 28 different feet.
Imagery/ Image
The elements in a literary work used to evoke mental images, not only of the visual sense, but of sensation and emotion as well.
Can apply to any and all components of a poem that evoke sensory experience, whether figurative or literal, and also applies to the concrete things so imaged.
Irony
Verbal irony is a form of expression n which the use of words is the opposite of the thought in the speaker's mind, thus conveying a meaning that contradicts the literal definition.
Dramatic or situational irony is a literary or theatrical device of having a character utter words which the reader or audience understands to have a different meaning, but of which the character himself is unaware.
Irony of fate is when a situation occurs which is quite the reverse of what one might have expected.
Meter
A measure of rhythmic quantity, the organized succession of groups of syllables at basically regular intervals in a line of poetry, according to definite metrical patterns.
The unit of measure is the foot.
Metrical lines are named for the type of constituent foot for the number of feet in the line: monometer(1), dimeter (2), trimeter (3), tetrameter (4), pentameter (5), hexameter (6), heptameter (7) and octameter (8)
Thus a line containing five iambic feet would be called iambic pentameter. Rarely does a metrical line exceed six feet.
Narrative
Narration of an event or story, stressing details of plot, incident and action.
Ode
A type of lyric, usually irregular rather than uniform, generally of considerable length, and sometimes continuous, sometimes divided in accordance with transitions of thought and mood in a complexity of stanzaic forms; it often has varying iambic line lengths with no fixed system of rhyme schemes and is always marked by the rich, intense expression of an elevated thought, often addressed to a praised person or object.
Stanza
A sequence of lines arranged in a definite pattern of meter and rhyme scheme which is repeated throughout the work.
Line Division
Does not necessarily make sense but is used to emphasis attention. Perfect Rhyme
A rhyme which:
has an exact correspondence in the vowel sound and in words ending in consonants, the sound of the final consonant
has a difference in the consonant sounds preceding the vowel
has a similarity of accent on the rhyming
syllable(s).
Prose
Ordinary language people use in speaking or writing, distinguished from the language of poetry primarily in that the line is not treated as a formal unit and it has no repetitive pattern of rhythm or meter.
Rhyme
A type of echoing which utilizes correspondence of sound in the final accented vowels and all that follows of two or more words, but the preceding consonant sounds must differ.
Close similarity of sound as well as an exact correspondence.
Soliloquy
a discourse of a person speaking to him/herself whether alone or in the presence of others.
It gives the illusion of being unspoken reflections.
Stanza/ Stanzaic
A division of a poem made by arranging the lines into units separated by a space, usually of a corresponding number of lines and a recurrent patter of meter and rhyme.
Verse
A line of writing arranged in a metrical pattern.
Tone
The poet's attitude in style or expression toward the subject.
Can refer to the overall mood of the poem itself, in the sense of a pervading atmosphere intended to influence the reader's emotional response and foster expectations of the conclusion. Assonance
The relatively close juxtaposition of the same or similar vowel sounds, but with different end consonants in a line or passage, thus a vowel rhyme.

Example:
Molten - Golden Oxymoron
The conjunction of words which, at first view, seem to be contradictory or incongruous, but whose surprising juxtaposition expresses a truth or dramatic effect

Example:
Cool fire
Deafening silence. Quatrain
A poem, unit or stanza of four lines of verse, usually with a rhyme scheme of abab or its variant, xbyb.
It is the most common stanzaic form. ex. Rise Up Ye Armies of Peace and Love

Rise up ye armies of peace and love
Make known you're tactical plan
To rid the world of this evil scourge
Of wars and the killing of man Allusion
An implied or indirect reference to something assumed to be known, such as an historical event or personage, a well-known quotation from literature, or a famous work of art.
May be used to display knowledge; to appeal to a reader or audience sharing some experience or knowledge with the writer; or to enrich a literary work by merging the echoed material with the new poetic concept.
Can be used as a means of imagery, since like a symbol, it can suggest ideas by connotation; its effectiveness, of course, depends upon the reader's acquaintance with the reference alluded to.

Example: Describing someone as a "Romeo" makes an allusion to the famous young lover in Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. Symbolism
A symbol is a word or image that represents something else.
Poets find the symbol a useful device because the symbol usually carries with it a strong emotional impact.

Ex. A white flag symbolizes peace.
Ex. A heart symbolizes love. Accent
The rhythmically significant stress in the articulation of words, giving some syllables more relative prominence than others.
In words of two or more syllables, one syllable is almost invariably stressed more strongly than the other syllables. in words of one syllable, the degree of stress normally depends on their grammatical function; nouns, verbs and adjectives are usually given more stress than articles or prepositions.
The words in a line of poetry are usually arranged so the accents occur at regular intervals, with the meter defined by the placement of the accents within the foot.
Accent should not be construed as emphasis.
Cadence
The progressive rhythmical pattern in lines of verse; also, the natural tone or modulation of the voice determined by the alternation of accented or unaccented syllables.
Caesura (siz-YUR-uh)
A rhythmic break or pause in the flow of sound which is commonly introduced in about the middle of a line of verse, but may be carried for different effects. usually placed between syllables rhythmically connected i order to aid the recital as well as to convey the meaning more clearly, it is a pause dictated by the sense of the content or by natural speech patterns, rather than by metrics. I may coincide with conventional punctuation marks, but not necessarily. a caesura within a line is indicated in scanning by the symbol (ll).
Connotation
The suggestion of a meaning by a word beyond what it explicitly denotes or describes.
Ex. Home means the place where one lives but by connotation, also suggests security, family, love and comfort.
Consonance
A pleasing combination of sounds; sounds in agreement with tone.
Also, the close repetition of the same end consonants of stressed syllables with differing vowel sounds.
Ex. boat and night or drunk and milk
Denotation
The literal dictionary meaning of a word as distinct from an associated idea or connotation.
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