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Geography Physical Systems

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Rachel York

on 29 January 2013

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Transcript of Geography Physical Systems

Why is Canada such a great place to live? Physical Systems
-Soil and vegetation Human Systems
-Population Distribution and density
-Population pyramids
-Rural areas Resources and the Environment
-Types of resources
-Issues related to harvesting and use of resources
-Trade and distribution
-Employment Landforms Canada is divided into 7 landform regions
-Western Cordillera
-Interior Plains
-Canadian Shield
-Great Lakes- St. Lawrence Lowlands
-Arctic and Hudson Bay lowlands
-Innuitian Mountains This is a map of the 7 landforms of Canada The Western Cordillera is along the west coast of North America, covering from the Yukon to British Columbia and Western Alberta. This region has a series of mountain ranges and is mostly separated by plateaus and valleys.
The Western Cordillera is (geographically) one of the most diverse regions. The highest mountain is Mount Logan in south-west Yukon. The Interior Plains is located in the Yukon, Northwest Territories, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The Interior Plains is known for the prairie grasslands. The Canadian Shield completely surrounds the Hudson Bay. It includes the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Quebec, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Newfoundland and Labrador (Labrador only). The Canadian shield consist of mostly hard rock formed millions of years ago that was once mountains. The affects of wind, water, ice and erosion over many years during the ice age flattened the rock over time to what is now is today. The Great Lakes- St Lawrence Lowlands is a mixed wood plains region. The St Lawrence Lowlands have deep soil from the most recent glaciation, which was also when the Canadian Shield lost all rocky soil. The great Lakes basin was emptied out then filled with water that drained into the ocean. The Appalachian Mountains are mountains that litter across Eastern North America. They formed roughly 480 million years ago. They were once as tall as the Rocky Mountains or Alps but due to erosion now look like rolling hills. The Arctic lowlands lay between the Canadian Shield and the Innuitian region. This region is a tundra region, which is treeless plain with a cold dry climate with poor soil due to draining issues. Most of Arctic lowlands is in Nunavut. The Hudson Bay lowlands is located between the Canadian Shield and Southern parts of Hudson Bay and James Bay with most of it laying in the province of Ontario with small areas in Manitoba and Quebec. This is the largest wetland of North America. The Innuitian Mountains are a mountain range located in Nunavut and the Northwest territories which are in Canada's Arctic territories. They are part of the Arctic Cordillera and have not been explored due to rough climate. The Innuitian Mountains are well known for Barbeau Peak. Canada has four seasons winter, spring, summer and fall and has eight Climate regions Arctic, Taiga, Atlantic Maritime, Boreal, Prairie and Pacific Maritime, South Eastern and Cordilleran. Climate Arctic This is a map showing the eight climate regions of Canada. The Arctic climate region has cold, harsh winters that last ten months and even when summer rolls around it is very short and cool. The Arctic also has very low precipitation due to the Arctic Ocean and other bodies of water around it being frozen Boreal The Boreal climate region has continental climate; hot in winter and cold in summer. Lots of precipitation from cyclonic storms in the winter. Convection happens too when the ground heats up in the summer. Taiga The Taiga climate region has long cold winters lasting six months or more ( usually more) with some precipitation and almost none in the winter. Prairie The Prairie climate region is dry and humid in the summer and dry and cold in the winter. The Prairie climate region has rain in the spring and summer and very low precipitation in the winter. Pacific Maritime The Pacific Maritime climate region is above freezing in the winter and cool in the summer. There is lots of precipitation in along the coast line and is good for people who don't like harsh winters. These landforms make Canada such a great place to live in because the most famous landform (the Canadian shield) protects Canada from things such as earthquakes.( Only the provinces that it lays beneath) This is because of the thick Precambrian rock the lays underneath parts of Canada (and some of the U.S.A) is too thick to be broken apart if an earthquake were to happen so the earth doesn't split apart. If someone lived in a place where there were lots of earthquakes, moving to a part of Canada where this wont happen would be reassuring and also much safer. Cordilleran The Cordilleran climate region has a mixture of weather due to the elevated mountains and insulated valleys. There is much precipitation on the westward slopes well there are milder and drier conditions in the south with the most in the valleys. South-Eastern The South-Eastern climate region has very wild range of temperatures! Around the great lakes it is much like the Pacific maritime is with lots of precipitation along the coast lines. The South-Eastern climate region have moderately cold winters and warm summers. Atlantic Maritime The Atlantic Maritime climate region has not too cold winters and cool summers. There are many cyclonic storms during a year, the Atlantic ocean has moderate temperatures. Canadian Shield Western Cordillera Interior Plains Great Lakes/ St Lawrence Lowlands Arctic Lowlands Appalachian Mountains Innuitian Mountains Why? This climate makes Canada such a good place to live because it has a various range of climates. It isn't just cold all the time or hot all the time (depending on the place you live but mostly) You have a good variety of the four seasons winter, summer,spring and fall. This is good for all people to come here because One person in the family could like snowboarding and skiing well the another could like swimming and bike riding. The variety of climate here make it an easy place for each member of a family to be happy. Why? Soil and Vegetation There are 7 vegetation regions in Canada Tundra, Mixed Forests, Deciduous Forests, Cordilleran Vegetation, Boreal and Taiga Forest, Grasslands and West Coast Forest. Tundra In the Tundra trees don't grow well due to the rough terrain. The Tundra is covered in small plants and shrubs such as permafrost, mosses and lichen that grow low/close to the ground to soak up as much heat as they can. The Tundra has a short, cold growing season. The soil is thin and is permafrost (permanently frozen ground). A very small amount of humus is in this soil. Boreal and Taiga Forest The Boreal and Taiga forest is the largest vegetation region in Canada, it is separated by the tundra with the tree line. The soil here is classified is a wet-soil region also. This wet soil combined with high acidity, lack of humus and the leaching effect of water makes this soil infertile and unsuitable for agriculture. Tho this soil is well suited for coniferous trees and deciduous trees to both grow. Coniferous trees don't have the traditional tree leaf they have cones and needle like leaves. Deciduous trees are often known as broad-leafed trees. These trees shed there leaves in the winter. Few types of deciduous trees can withstand the harsh winters of these forest but some that can are poplar and white birch. Mixed Forest The Mixed forest is between the Boreal forest to the north and the deciduous forest to the south. The soil here is suitable for Agriculture and contains many types of trees, bushes and other plants Deciduous Forest The Deciduous forest is found in Southwestern Ontario because climate there is optimal for deciduous trees with there long, hot summers, mild winters, and plentiful precipitation. The soil here is much like the mixed forest but are less acidic and have more humus. The soil here is the most fertile soils of Eastern Canada. Grasslands The grasslands or also known as the Prairies are located in the southern part of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. It is called the grasslands because the climate is too dry for most species of trees but lots of grass grows. There are three sub regions in the grasslands short-grass prairie, long-grass prairie, and parkland. Cordilleran Vegetation In the Cordilleran Vegetation the vegetation changes when you go up the mountain ridges, once you're passed the treeline there are only shrubs and meadows of flowers. Many types of soils are found in the Western Cordilleran mountains. The distribution of soil depends on the particular elevation, slope, rainfall, and vegetation cover of each area within the mountain. West Coast Forest The West Coast Forest has lush forests of Douglas Fir, Sitka spruce, red cedar, and western hemlock. Trees of this temperate rainforest love the heavy rainfall and mild climate. The soil has a high humus account due to the lot of plant materiel and the high rainfall leaches minerals deep into the soil. Coniferous trees Deciduous trees Mixed Forest The Soil and Vegetation make Canada such a great place to live because you can grown many types of trees, bushes and other plants in the many types of soil. Much vegetation in Canada is more then other places due to the large amount of country side which is appealing to most people coming to Canada with the wide variety of trees, bushes and other flowers and plants. Canada's national flower is a white trillium. Why? There are natural and and unnatural resources. Types of resources Natural resources Natural resources are resources are resources supplied by nature. This is a list of some natural resources in Canada iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas and hydro power. This list is the country's mineral, petroleum, hydro power, and other resources of commercial importance Unnatural Resources An unnatural resource is a resource created by humans instead of nature. One of Canada's unnatural resources is technology, such as the Canadian arm built for NASA that was used on the space shuttle. Why? Canada's Natural and Unnatural resources make Canada a great place to live because there are much more natural resources then unnatural which is much better for the environment (ie pollution). Anyone going to live in Canada would like this because cleaner environment (such as cleaner air, water and surroundings) is much better place to come to then dirty air, water and surroundings, especially if they come from a place where it is polluted. A white trillium. The Canadian arm Availability This is the availability of resources and where they come from British Colombia British Colombia has a rich supply of varied resources such as the coniferous forests of the coast and central interior, the dispersed base-metal deposits and the coal and natural-gas resources of the east and north east. High-quality agricultural land is limited to the South west. Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut cover almost 40% of Canada. There is limited plant growth here due to the harsh climate in the North. These territories support large populations of terrestrial and marine wildlife even tho being limited by the harsh climate and environmental conditions. For the native populations wildlife stocks are important sources of food and fur is important as well. Base-metal resources have been developed in western sections but its availability for use depends upon a number of conditions. The most reliable resource now is being looked at, the exploration for petroleum. Alberta Alberta's resources consist of conventional oil which is oil with a low viscosity and flows to the surface when it's at it's natural condition that has been heavily used and productivity is now declining and are turning towards the large deposits of heavy oil which are too viscus to flow to the surface without special equipment. "Collectively, these energy resources make Alberta the fossil-fuel storehouse of Canada." Saskatchewan Saskatchewan has one of the largest areas for high-quality agriculture for Canada, extensive and productive wildlife habitat, major deposits of potash and uranium, and significant supplies of petroleum and coal. Saskatchewan is Canada's main wheat growing area and is also a major producer of other grains and field crops too. Saskatchewan is the world's largest exporter and second-largest producer of potash. In the northern parts of Saskatchewan large amounts of uranium are found which make it the second-largest producer in Canada. Alberta and Saskatchewan share the Lloydminster heavy and conventional oil fields. A part of Saskatchewan coal is used extensively for thermal-power generation.
Manitoba Manitoba has many resources including a variety of metallic minerals, hydroelectric power potential, and a significant area of good quality agricultural land. However nickle is mined in the largest quantities with copper, lead, zinc and precious metals also mined but locally but also in significant quantities. As you go north some of the rivers have been been developed for hydroelectricity and other rivers have the potential to be developed. Manitoba doesn't produce much oil but recently a hydrocarbon area has been identified along the southern border (oil). The many different types of wildlife and fishing opportunities make Manitoba a great place with lots of different resources. Ontario Ontario has the largest market for resource-based goods in all of Canada. Ontario is ranked third for area suitable for agriculture and southern Ontario alone has over 50% of Canada's Class 1 agricultural land. In the north and south of Ontario the large forests there contribute around 25% of the national allowable cut and supports a major forest-product industry. The forests that are easily accessible great opportunities for outdoor recreation long with many lakes, streams and rivers. The Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence river are widely used for transportation routes, sources of hydroelectricity and recreational opportunities. Ontario lacks significant fossil fuels and is only moderately endowed with industrial minerals with the exception of salt. Northern Ontario however has many other minerals which leads Canada in production of nickel, uranium, zinc, gold, silver and copper (Is second to BC in production of copper) Québec Quebec has the largest (and greatest) developed and potential hydroelectric resources in Canada. The multiple rivers running off the Canadian Shield into the St. Lawrence Lowlands and James bay have been used to make one big renewable resource (any natural resource that can be replenished naturally with the passage of time) which helps make up for the lack of fossil fuels in this area. The St. Lawrence River is also a heavily used transportation route. Due to the large amounts of fresh water there are considerable opportunity for both outdoor recreation and wildlife habitat. Quebec doesn't have good agriculture or soil and is limited in both, but still ranks third in the productivity of its extensive forested area. Minerals that are found and mined here include asbestos, iron, gold and some base metals. The Atlantic Provinces Much of this area is made up of islands, this gives easy access to fish and crustacean resources. In the Gulf of St Lawrence and the Continental Shelf of the western Atlantic, you can find Canada's largest fishing industry. Some other resources (that are renewable) are relatively small areas of productive land, forests and hydroelectric resources. The large coastlines provide many opportunities for seasonal outdoor recreation. There are offshore and onshore minerals. Onshore there are is a large base-metal resource in northern New Brunswick, iron in Newfoundland also gypsum and salt in Nova Scotia. "The only significant onshore fossil-fuel resources are coal deposits in Nova Scotia's Cape Breton area. " Offshore minerals that can be found are in the Continental Shelf which has a significant potential for oil and gas. Why? Canada's availability for resources make Canada a great place to live in because with the large amounts of resources (and the variety and availability) create job opportunities. For example the minerals have to be mined which offer mining jobs, any recreational use could build a company and have many workers there such as business men, trainers and cleaners ext, drilling for oil would also promote jobs as would building dams for hydroelectric power. This would make someone want to live in Canada because if they came from a place with fewer jobs (especially after the economy crashed) and then came to Canada they could find a job easier due to the many opportunities we have here in Canada! Also things made out of these many resources would be easier attainable. Issues Related to Harvesting and Use of Resources Issues Related to Harvesting In 2011 Statistics Canada Census of Agriculture say that the average age of farm operators in this country is 54. This a drop by 10% from 2006. If the farmers are getting older and older they cannot produce and do as much on the farm as they used to. Statistics say that 74% of farmers today are planning to sell their farm in the next 10 years, and the buyers aren't people who want to farm no, there developers investors and offshore investment agencies. But to cope Canada has new innovations: technology, initiatives and policies to engage younger generations in food production, which in turn creates new jobs also. Harvesting Barley Issues in Use of Resources Issues in use of resources isn't just a problem in Canada it is a global issue. Large populations affect and put stress on the environment, society and resources, I believe overpopulation is the main problem for the environment. How we use our resources and on what are a major impact on the environment and is a critical issue but is a lesser problem in Canada. Some of the problems it enlarges are pollution and draining of much needed resources that are nonrenewable. Trade and Distribution Trade Canada is considered a trading nation due to the large amount of its total trade. Canada's largest trade issue has been a major political issue. In 1897 the United Kingdom was Canada's largest trading partner by far. Over time tho more and more of Canada's trade was done with the United States. After Canada – People's Republic of China relations opened in 1970 trade with China grew rapidly and more then ever. According to 2010 statics Canada's five largest trading partners are (in order) The United States, China, Mexico, United Kingdom and Japan. Distribution Canada has many distributors such as Blue Goose, Burnbrae Farms, Canada Bread, Canadian Federation of Independent Grocers and Cesium Telecom. There are many more you might recognize or use in your everyday life such as Club House Canada, Chapman's, Energizer Wonder Bread and Cascades. Canada also distributes other things such as metals and forestry. Why? The issues in harvesting and use of resources make Canada a great place to live because even tho these problems are happening here in Canada they are also happening globally. There are much worse in other country's but here in Canada these types of problems are being worked hard on too be fixed and aren't nearly as bad as other places around the globe. If someone wanted to have better use of resources or made food available due to our higher number of farmers then some other place they would want to come to Canada. Why? Trade and distribution make Canada a great place to live in because Canada is a large trading nation which is a great asset if you live in Canada. Also many of the distributors are only limited to Canada, they offer many amazing things which you can only get in Canada, that just adds to the already huge list of reasons of why Canada is such a great place to live Employment In Canada many jobs are available, the work employment rate in Canada is 61.8 % (in 2011) The employment rate has raised 4.7% since 1976. Even after the economy crashed Canada still manages to be doing good, and much better then some other countries. People 25-44 years old have the highest employment rate at 81%. People 45-64 years old have an employment rate of 71%. People 15-24 years old have a 55.4% employment rate and 65+ years old have an 11.3 employment rate. These facts say if you're 25-44 years old you have the highest likely hood to get a job in Canada, if your 45-64 years old you have a great chance, if you 15-25 you have a good chance and if you 65+ your chances are much less to get a job. Full time employment is much greater then part time at 11.8% (increased 4.7% since 1976) well full time employment is 50% (same as it was in 1976) Population Distribution and Density Population Density Population Distribution The population density (people per sq. km) in Canada was last reported at 3.75 in 2010, the population in Canada (and over the world) has been growing steadily. Canada has a low population density. Canada has 34,482,779 people in it. Population Density in Canada Ontario has the highest population distribution (according to 2011) and Quebec second, these numbers have grown over the years but mostly stayed in the same general area with Ontario in first and Quebec in second ext. Why? Population distribution and density makes Canada a great place to live because the amount of people in Canada isn't a lot (compared to other places) so if you lived in a crowded place before this would be a nice chance. As you saw in the map before this Canada's population is mostly in one spot so if you wanted to live more secluded you live farther north in the even more country area with a much smaller population. Population Pyramid Canada's population is mostly older people now which in turn means less younger. In the new textbook (page 210) It shows a population pyramid much like the one on the next slide but shows statics from 2004 for Nunavut and Ontario. The population pyramids there show what will soon happen later on (the population pyramids on the next slide). "A population pyramid, also called an age picture diagram, is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population." Population pyramid Why? Canada's population pyramids makes Canada a great place to live because it helps show that Canada needs more young people to move to Canada and start a family so it can help the jobs for them grow and the population size for each grow also. Someone would want to move to Canada if they have or wanted to have a big family because unlike some other countries (such as China were only one child is aloud) you can have quite a large family in Canada easily. Cities Toronto is the largest city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. It is most known for the CN tower, one of the worlds tallest buildings.The city has 2.6 million residents and is the fifth most populated city in North America. Toronto is one of the most diverse cities with about 49% of people living in it born outside of Canada. Toronto has many attractions including CN tower, Toronto zoo, Ontario Science Center and many others. Toronto Why? Cities make Canada a good place to live in because there are many things in the amazing cities of Canada that you can't see anywhere else but there such as the famous CN tower. If someone was worried about standing out because of the low diversity rate in a country they wouldn't have to worry about that here with high diversity rates (such as Toronto with 49%) Each city has many different things you can see such as different cultures, people and traditions you can't see anywhere else. Rural areas Rural Canada Rural areas are primary low populated areas and a low population density also. Most rural ares are distanced from big cities with high populations. In 2006 the Canadian population living in a rural area was between 19% and 30% of the total population (all depending on the definition of rural being used in the statistics). Rural Canada is highly diverse. Why? Rural areas make Canada a great place to live in because unlike some other countries in the world there are lots of forestry and cities so if you wanted to live in the country but still be fairly close to the city that is possible. People who are from countries where cities are everywhere would like the country (rural) aspect and people who are from countries where it's mostly country would like the big cities Canada has to offer. Canada is a great place to live because Canada has been ranked as being/having he world's best advanced economy. The only G7 nation fully recovered from the global financial crisis & recession. The world's soundest banking system. The world leader in educational attainment.The world's most tolerant country. The world's friendliest nation.The world's most welcoming country. The world's top-brand country rating. Canada has also been rated One of the world's 10 safest countries. One of the world's 10 most peaceful nations. One of the world's 10 happiest countries. One of the world's 10 least corrupt nations. One of the world's 10 freest countries. Overall looking at Canada I wouldn't wanna live anywhere else, it is an amazing country and if you have never been here I recommend a visit so you can see just how amazing it is.
Canada; a beautiful, great country no matter how you look at it. By: Rachel york
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