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A Level Training Programmes
Transcript of A Level Training Programmes
•Give a detailed explanation of plyometrics as a method of training
•Give a detailed explanation of PNF as a method of training
•Give a detailed explanation of altitude training as a method of training
•Explain the term ‘periodisation’ in the context of designing training programmes.
•Outline a typical periodised year for a 100m sprinter and a games player
•Explain the process and physiological reasons behind altitude training PNF Plyometrics Altitude Training SAQ What is PNF strethcing? What does Plyometrics mean? How does it work? What is Altitude Training? What is SAQ? Periodisation Meso Meso Macro Meso Micro Micro Micro Micro Micro Micro Training Cycles What is Periodisation? Macro Cycle Mesocycles Microcycles Macrocycles: the long term performance goal. In games such as football the macrocycle will usually correspond to the year-long season. For other athletes, who perhaps have the ambition of competing in the Olympics, it could be as long as 4 years. Example What is a Macro Cycle? Mesocycles: subdivisions of a macrocycle that may last between 2 and 8 weeks. A mesocycle will usually have a particular focus, e.g. A Badminton player may develop their agility during the pre-season phase of training. What is a mesocycle? Example What is a microcycle? Microcycles: sub-divisions of a mesocycle which are usually a week in duration. They provide more detailed information regarding the specific individual and volume of training. Example During the first week of training an individual might work on their upper body strength. The following week they may work on lower body strength with the overall objective of improving their muscular strength Start Finish PNF Plyometrics Altitude Training SAQ Advantages
•Excellent method of developing Power and elastic strength
•Can develop power in both upper and lower body
•Activities can be made to replicate actions from sport
•The high intensity activities can increase the risk of injury
•Appropriate technique is essential to the prevention of injury
•More Recovery time may be needed when compared to continuous training Advantages
•The best method of improving flexibility and therefore increasing the range of movement possible about a joint
•Can also help improve speed and elastic strength of a performer
•Must be done with the assistance of a partner
•Can only be performed under the watchful eye of a trained coach
•Extreme flexibility can lead to joint instability and increase the risk of injury Advantages
•A wide variety of activities can be used
•Can be sport specific
•Activities can develop speed, agility and power simultaneously
•Requires specialist equipment Advantages
Increased haematocrit (concentration of red blood cells)
Increased concentration of haemaglobin
Enhanced oxygen transport
Difficult due to lack of oxygen
Any benefits are quickly lost at sea level. Competition Phase Preparation Phase Transition Phase Phases within Periodisation The transition period is the final stage of the periodised year yet perhaps the most important phase of all. Crucially it helps the performer recover from the previous year of training and competition and prepare for the next! Following a hard season of training and competition a period of 3–6 weeks of active recovery is needed to allow the performer to fully recharge their physical and psychological batteries so that they are injury free and highly motivated for the forthcoming season. This active recovery should take the form of general exercise where performers engage in a variety of fun activities. The general conditioning stage of the preparation period is characterised by high volume, low I_________ work. The key theme or focus should be on the development of a solid E____________ base upon which to build future training. A good general conditioning programme should aim to develop aerobic and muscular endurance, general strength and mobility. The competition specific training sees an increase in the intensity of training. This is the time when much of the St__________ and Sp____ work should be undertaken. The performer should therefore be working at higher speeds or working against greater resistances (e.g. by lifting heavier weights). In addition to competition specific fitness requirements, technique and tactical appreciation should also be developed now so that the performer is fully prepared and finely tuned for the first day of the competitive season. The main goal of the competition period is to develop optimal competition performance. Maintaining levels of F_______ and conditioning is essential during this stage as is the continued development of competition-specific aspects of training. During this stage the overall extent or volume of training is decreased but the intensity of the training is increased. During a long season or where an athlete may need to peak on more than one occasion, the competition period may be subdivided into the following phases: •Phase 3 (6–8 weeks): the typical competition period. There should be a reduction in the volume of general training but an increase in intensity of competition specific training. Trials and qualifying competitions should fall within this phase.
•Phase 4 (4–6 weeks): during a long competitive season it is recommended that a period where competitions are eliminated altogether is introduced and the level of competition specific training is reduced. It can be likened to a mini transition period where the body can recover and prepare for phase 5 in which major competitions or cup finals occur.
•Phase 5 (3–4 weeks): effectively this is the culmination of the training year! The major events of the performer’s calendar will fall during this phase, e.g. Olympic finals, Cup finals etc. Competition-specific training is maintained and tapering for peak performance should take place. Tapering involves the manipulation of training volume and intensity to promote peak performance. When performers such as athletes, tennis players compete quite regularly, they normally do so to prepare for one major event (Olympics-Grand Slams). They will undertake in events to prepare for this one major event. Prior to an event an athlete will reduce daily training loads, this is called tapering. To be physically and mentally prepared for the major event is called peaking. Tapering and Peaking