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Eliizabeth Fernandez

on 14 December 2013

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Transcript of Dreams

Dreams mainly happen in REM sleep.
During REM sleep, brain activity is high and resembles that of if one were to be awake.
REM sleep
REM sleep is distinguishable from NREM sleep by changes in physiological states, including its characteristic rapid eye movements. In normal sleep (in people without disorders of sleep-wake patterns or REM behavior disorder), heart rate and respiration speed up and become erratic, while the face, fingers, and legs may twitch.
REM Sleep
It is generally thought that REM-associated muscle paralysis is meant to keep the body from acting out the dreams that occur during this intensely cerebral stage.

The first period of REM typically lasts 10 minutes, with each recurring REM stage lengthening, and the final one lasting an hour.
Dreaming seems to be just brain activity displaying vivid images and sound, but do they ever mean something? Is there a reason why we have the dreams we do?
Dream Interpretations
Freudian Dream Interpretation
Freud published “The Interpretation of Dreams” in 1900.

He believed that dreams were motivated by wanting wish fulfillment and that they were instigated by the events of the day preceding the dream (“day residue”)
Manifest/Latent content- the content a dreaming individual experiences (manifest) and the hidden meaning of the content (latent)

What are Dreams?
Dreams are successions of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.
Dream interpretations
Jungian Dream Interpretation
Jung proposed two approaches to analyzing dreams: the objective and the subjective

Objective approach
: every person in a dream represents the person they are

Subjective approach
: every person in a dream represents an aspect of the dreamer
Dream Interpretations

Hall Dream Interpretation
Calvin Hall developed a theory in which he stated that dreaming is a cognitive process and that dreams are thoughts that occur during sleep, as well as that dream images are visual representations of personal conceptions.
Hall categorized dreams into one of five principal areas of life:

Concepts of self
: the types or number of roles you play in your dreams

Concepts of other people
: roles other people play in your dreams

Concepts of the world
: how your surroundings look in your dreams

Concepts of impulses, prohibitions, and penalties
: your behavior and how it is affected by impulses and punishment

Concepts of problems and conflicts
: struggles, issues, or problems you are facing in your waking life
Dream Interpretations
Frederick Perls and Gestalt Therapy

Perls believed that dreams allowed individuals to reclaim lost parts of their personalities and become whole again. The process of reclaiming the lost parts became known as the Gestalt Therapy.

Gestalt therapy is not meant to analyze dreams, but to bring them into the “here-and-now”. Through acting out the dream, the dreamer discovers feelings that they have overlooked and/or ignored.
REM Sleep
Intense dreaming occurs during REM sleep as a result of heightened cerebral activity, but paralysis occurs simultaneously in the major voluntary muscle groups, including the muscles of the chin and neck. Because REM is a mixture of brain states of excitement and muscular immobility, it is sometimes called paradoxical sleep.
Dream Theories
Dream Interpretations
REM Sleep
Dream Theories
Ancient Theories
The Divine Messages

-Religious throughout cultures.

-Dreams of torment or guidance.
Dream Theories
The Egyptians
Acknowledged only gods
omens of warning or demand

The Greeks
Cleansing for insight
ritual of necessary sacrifice

The Babylonians
Leaders given wisdom
to guide the common man.

Dream Theories
Minor Theories

-Strangthening Memory

-Thought Generator


Major Theories
Emotional Preparation Theory
~The State of Confrontation

-Self Modifying Mind
-Emotional Expressiveness
-Contemplate the Given

Activation Synthesis Theory
~The Understanding of Activity

-REM causes Limbric Activation
-Replaced by Symbolism
-Disclaimer; Returning Dreams

Wish Fulfillment Theory
~The Manifestation of Desire

-Suppression vs Satisfaction
-Aggression or Pleasure
-Disclaimer; Fear Within

Continual Activation Theory
~The Filtering Mind

-Tranfer of Throught
-Disconnection Triggered
-Procedural Organization

Unconcious Expectations Theory
~The Scientific Prophecy

-LongTerm Understanding
-Interpretations of the Mind
-Forging False Memories
Major Theories
Lucid Dreaming
Lucid Dreaming
A lucid dream is any dream in which one is aware that one is dreaming.
Once one is aware, they are capable of controlling the dream they are in.
They can control the setting, what might happen next, what and/or who is in that dream, and much more.
Lucid Dreaming
Before one can lucid dream, first they must surpass sleep paralysis and enter REM Sleep.

Sleep paralysis is a phenomenon in which people, either when falling asleep or wakening, temporarily experience an inability to move.
Also during sleep paralysis, one might experience hallucinations of dark figures approaching them and their rooms shifting into different shapes.
Lucid Dreaming
In the video, it informs you of one way you can gain control over your dreams to be able to lucid dream; reality checks.

Examples of reality checks:

-Checking your watch/phone
-Looking in a mirror
-Flipping a light switch
-Counting your fingers
Once one understands the steps on how to lucid dream, everything else comes naturally to the individual.

Studies show once a person learns how to control their dreams, lucid dreaming becomes a regular thing for them and it begins to happen more often. If a individual lucid dreams too much, there is a chance they'll have difficulty noticing the differences between reality and the dream world. Sooner or later, the person will find themselves doubting reality checks in reality and believe they are still dreaming when they're actually awake.
Lucid Dreaming
Dream Disorders
Dream Disorders
Nocturnal Lagophthalmos

Inability to close eyes during sleep
Reduce quality of sleep, Morning irritation, foreign body sensation, scratchy eyes, cause corneal damage
4% prevalence in 1960
10-20% today (in part due to surgeries)
Treatment involves drops or surgery

Rem sleep behavior disorder (RBD)

Act out your dreams, often violently
Occurs during rem sleep
Medication cures RBD about 90%
Dream Disorders
Exploding head syndrome (ehs)

Auditory hallucination that occurs between sleeping and waking state.
Loud noise associated with a bang, explosion gunshot, cymbals crashing, etc, that seems to originate from within your own head
Unknown what causes it but seems more coomon in people with extreme fatigue as well as the rapid withdrawal of prescription drugs.


Neurological disorder that affects control of waking and sleeping
Excessive fatigue tiredness with sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks
Causes unknown but some genes are strongly associated with it.
Dream Disorders

Symptoms include various levels of sexual acts from fondling to full fledged intercourse with climax.
Causes are not fully understood, but seems to be a result of confusing arousal, which is when a person suddenly leaves deep sleep but does not fully become conscious.
Occurs most often in people with other sleep disorders such as sleep apnea or sleep related epilepsy as well as alcohol use heightens risk of occurrence
Treatment varies depending on suspected cause but medication is often used successfully.

Dream Disorders: Night Terrors
The End
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