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S. Policciardi

on 19 November 2013

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The Lungs
Respiration processes
Deep Breathing

Place your hands on your stomach
When you inhale through your nose fill your stomach with air. Breathe in for three seconds.
Hold for three seconds
Then exhale through your mouth for three seconds slowly
Hold for three seconds
and repeat the cycle

Keep shoulders relaxed
Think of your breath coming from your center

Respiratory System
the Buteyko body oxygen test:
1-10 s - critically and terminally ill patients, usually hospitalized
10-20 s - most sick patients with numerous complaints and, often, on daily medical drugs
20-40 s - most normal people and people with poor health, but often without serious organic problems.
40-60 s - good health (no chronic diseases).
Over 60 s - ideal health, with short sleep, very high energy levels, and amazing clarity of mind.
Deep Breathing Benefits

Deep breathing allows the cells in your body to oxygenate more efficiently
it can reduce stress levels, reduce panic and fear and helps you think clearly.
Deep breath stimulates parasympathetic nervous system which slows down the heart rate.
It can lower high blood pressure too.

Detoxifies the body: Deep breathing cleanses the blood, pumps the blood to all parts of the body, and flushes the toxins from your body.
Deep breathing exercises strengthens the lung muscles and improves the supply of oxygen to your body.

We generally inhale less oxygen. Therefore, deep breathing assures you get sufficient oxygen.
Lack of oxygen is also responsible for tiredness and lack of alertness.
Minute ventilation rates (chronic diseases)

Normal breathing 6 L/min - Medical textbooks
Healthy Subjects 6-7 L/min >400 Results of 14 studies
Heart disease 15 (±4) L/min 22 Dimopoulou et al, 2001
Heart disease 16 (±2) L/min 11 Johnson et al, 2000
Heart disease 12 (±3) L/min 132 Fanfulla et al, 1998
Heart disease 15 (±4) L/min 55 Clark et al, 1997
Heart disease 13 (±4) L/min 15 Banning et al, 1995
Heart disease 15 (±4) L/min 88 Clark et al, 1995
Heart disease 14 (±2) L/min 30 Buller et al, 1990
Heart disease 16 (±6) L/min 20 Elborn et al, 1990
Pulm hypertension 12 (±2) L/min 11 D'Alonzo et al, 1987
Cancer 12 (±2) L/min 40 Travers et al, 2008
Diabetes 12-17 L/min 26 Bottini et al, 2003
Diabetes 15 (±2) L/min 45 Tantucci et al, 2001
Diabetes 12 (±2) L/min 8 Mancini et al, 1999
Diabetes 10-20 L/min 28 Tantucci et al, 1997
Diabetes 13 (±2) L/min 20 Tantucci et al, 1996
Asthma 13 (±2) L/min 16 Chalupa et al, 2004
Asthma 15 L/min 8 Johnson et al, 1995
Asthma 14 (±6) L/min 39 Bowler et al, 1998
Asthma 13 (±4) L/min 17 Kassabian et al, 1982
Asthma 12 L/min 101 McFadden & Lyons, 1968
COPD 14 (±2) L/min 12 Palange et al, 2001
COPD 12 (±2) L/min 10 Sinderby et al, 2001
COPD 14 L/min 3 Stulbarg et al, 2001
Sleep apnea 15 (±3) L/min 20 Radwan et al, 2001
Liver cirrhosis 11-18 L/min 24 Epstein et al, 1998
Hyperthyroidism 15 (±1) L/min 42 Kahaly, 1998
Cystic fibrosis 15 L/min 15 Fauroux et al, 2006
Cystic fibrosis 10 L/min 11 Browning et al, 1990
Cystic fibrosis* 10 L/min 10 Ward et al, 1999
CF and diabetes* 10 L/min 7 Ward et al, 1999
Cystic fibrosis 16 L/min 7 Dodd et al, 2006
Cystic fibrosis 18 L/min 9 McKone et al, 2005
Cystic fibrosis* 13 (±2) L/min 10 Bell et al, 1996
Cystic fibrosis 11-14 L/min 6 Tepper et al, 1983
Epilepsy 13 L/min 12 Esquivel et al, 1991
CHV 13 (±2) L/min 134 Han et al, 1997
Panic disorder 12 (±5) L/min 12 Pain et al, 1991
Bipolar disorder 11 (±2) L/min 16 MacKinnon et al, 2007
Dystrophia myotonica 16 (±4) L/min 12 Clague et al, 1994
sick people, with chronic health problems, have heavy and deep ineffective breathing pattern.
Since overbreathing cannot improve normal oxygenation of the arterial blood (the normal value is about 98%),
this ineffective breathing pattern reduces CO2 concentrations in the blood and cells (creating hypocapnia).
Carbon dioxide deficiency leads to constriction of blood vessels and the suppressed Bohr effect. Both physiological processes makes cells oxygen deficient, as we are going to learn more in the next Section. Their respiratory are usually much worse during early morning hours due to Morning Hyperventilation Effect.
Bohr effect
Oxygen is transported in blood by hemoglobin cells.
The red blood cells know where to release more when cells sense higher concentration of CO2 in tissues and therefore release oxygen in such places.
Trillion cells (give or take a million) in the body require a continuous supply of O2
Main function of respiratory system is to supply O2 and remove CO2

Respiratory system
process by which O2 is brought into the lungs inspiration (internal)
CO2 is carried out of the lungs expiration (external)
Gas exchange at cellular level (external & internal)
Also used to describe breathing
Breathing vs. Respiration
Gas exchange (O2 loading and CO2 unloading) between the capillaries and the alveoli of the lungs
Contact with the outside world hence EXTERNAL
2.External respiration
Transport of O2 to the tissues of the cells (trillions of cells in the body)
Transport of CO2 to the lungs
The transportation highway is the
__________________ system
3.Transportation of Respiratory Gases
Gas exchange at cellular level

O2 unloading into the cells and CO2 loading into systemic blood

This occurs inside the body no contact with the outside world hence INTERNAL
4.Internal Respiration
Pulmonary Ventilation
Movement of air into and out of the lungs
Provide continuous supply of gases into the alveoli
Average adult lungs contains ~600 million alveoli surrounded by capillaries
Four process of Respiration
Hollow spaces in the bone in the head
Small openings connect to the nasal cavity
Function not fully understood
Help to regulate temperature & humidity of inspired air
Lighten bone structure of the head
Give resonance to voice
Preferred entrance of outside air

Small hairs trap bacteria and dust
Nasal Cavity
Eating mostly
Talking mostly
Dries out throat if you mouth breath
Oral cavity
Overgrown lymph tissue at top of throat
Helps to resist infection by filtering out foreign matter
Produces lymphocytes
Lymph nodes in the wall of the pharynx

Not thought to be significant
Throat collects air from nose and mouth pass it to trachea
Flap of tissue that guards the entrance to trachea
Closes during swallowing
Contains vocal cords (voice box)

Sounds produced by the movement air through cords
Tube leading from mouth and throat to stomach
Tube structure with rigid rings of cartilage

Transports air into lungs via pharynx and brachial tree

Mucus lining and cilia (hairlike projections) help to trap and sweep debris back to pharynx.
Here is what it looks like all together
Trachea divides into two bronchi Right and Left
(Lobar a fancy name for lobe)
Further divide into lobar bronchi
Right bronchi into 3 lobar bronchi
Left bronchi into 2 lobar bronchi
Smallest subdivision of bronchi

Ends of alveoli (plural of alveolus)
Line bronchial tubes
Wave-like motion
Carries mucus out of the lungs
Very small air sacs

Surrounded by capillaries which are embedded in the walls of the alveoli
Blood in the alveoli discharges CO2 & takes up O2
Concentration of O2 in the lung capillaries (oxygen poor) is less than concentration of O2 in the alveoli
Therefore, gas will move from high concentration to low concentration
Oxygen will diffuse from alveoli and enter the capillary and bind to red blood cells.
The reverse can be said for CO2 as it diffuses into the alveoli.
Structures in the Lungs
One continues membrane folded over itself
Surrounds each lobe and separate the lungs from the chest wall
Space between pleural membranes filled with fluids which reduce friction between lungs and chest cavity during inhalation
Pleural Membrane
Bronchial Tree
Protect and support chest cavity

Limited movement
Strong wall of muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity
Which way does it move during inspiration?
Structures Outside the Lung
Structures within the lungs
Bronchitis refers to wide variety of ailments characterized by narrowing of air passages
Inflammation of mucous lining in bronchial tubes
Leads to:
Tissue swelling
Narrowing of air passages
Decreased air movement through bronchi
Condition becomes more serious in bronchioles

Associated with long term bronchitis

Involves increased resistance to airflow through bronchioles

Decreased diameter of bronchioles creates resistance to movement of air out of lungs

Air pressure builds up in lungs

Unable to withhold increased pressure thin alveoli stretch and eventually rupture

Result is less surface area for gas exchange
Leads to decreased oxygen levels
Increased breathing rates and heart rates
Air pressure builds up in lungs

Unable to withhold increased pressure thin alveoli stretch and eventually rupture

Result is less surface area for gas exchange
Leads to decreased oxygen levels
Increased breathing rates and heart rates
Benefits of meditation
Recent research has shown that meditating twice per day for about 20 minutes can actually reduce blockages in your blood vessels, significantly lowering the risk of sudden death by heart attack or stroke.

Other benefits of meditation

- It lowers oxygen consumption and decreases breathing rate
- It increases blood flow and slows the heart rate
- relaxes your body and decreases muscle tension
- Enhances energy, strength and vigor
- Greater orderliness of brain functioning

Psychological benefits
- Builds self confidence
- Improved learning ability and memory
- Helps with focus and concentration
- Self healing

Spiritual Benefits
- Provides peace of mind and happiness
- Creates a deeper relationship with God
- Helps living in the present moment
A general guide to meditation
1. Sit tall or find a comfortable position

2. Relax your body, moving from your toes throughout your entire body

3. Be still and silent in mind and body

4. Breathe, take deep breathes

5. Establish a mantra - a phrase or word that you repeat throughout your meditation

6. Calm your mind by focusing on your breath or mantra
brushing aside any busy chatter from your mind, refocus on your breathe or mantra

7. End your practice by slowly bringing your attention back to your surroundings.
- Start to wiggle your toes and fingers and begin to move your arms and feet
- slowly begin to sit up or get up.
The Pathway
•Air enters the
•passes through the
oral pharynx
•through the
•into the
•into the
right and left bronchi
, which branches and rebranches into

, each of which terminates in a cluster of


-During inspiration (breathing in), the diaphragm contracts, drawing downward, creating a vacuum in the thoracic cavity.

-This vacuum inflates the lungs by drawing air into the body through the trachea, or windpipe.

During normal expiration (breathing out), the diaphragm relaxes allowing the air to flow out as the lungs deflate, similar to the way an inflated balloon deflates when released.
Inspiration and expiration
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