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Transcript of women's rights
She published her first book called the Feminine Mystique, which became the best seller during the 1920's.
She wrote this book to explain the unhappiness of women on how they had to live. It all started when she was at college and decided to give a survey to her classmates toward their role of being a housewife and many of the results were that they were unhappy.
She wanted women to know that they should have a choice and fight for whatever choice they desired and if they escaped from the confinment of the traditional ways then they would be happy with the freedom of being a women. The National Organization for Women
(NOW) A group of women, became frustrated with the lack of progress that the feminist movement was making
EEOC's failure to fight for women's rights in employment. formed a new organization for women's rights The convention of 300 men and women
took place in October of 1966. Friedan was elected president the NOW conference: October 30th 1966 Most Accomplished Civil Rights Act Legalized Equality for Women Civil Rights Act 1964
Title VII Court Cases Accused of giving information, instruction and other medical advice to married couples concerning contraceptives. Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber FAIR PAY ACT President Obama has long championed this bill and Lilly Ledbetter's cause, and by signing it into law, he will ensure that women like Ms. Ledbetter and other victims of pay discrimination can effectively challenge unequal pay Re-introduced in Jan 2009 House of Representatives with 247 votes in support and 171 against The major provision of the Fair Pay Act prohibits wage discrimination based on sex, race, or national origin among employees for work in "equivalent jobs."
Equivalent jobs are those whose composite of skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions are equivalent in value, even if the jobs are dissimilar.
The Act is a natural extension of the 1963 Equal Pay Act, which is limited to sex-based discrimination in the same jobs. For enforcement purposes, the Fair Pay Act allows class action lawsuits to be filed and provides for compensatory and punitive damages. The courts gave opposite verdicts, first supporting the complainant and later opposing.
in conclusion the complainant brought the case to the attention of the Supreme Court. The latter ruled in 2007 by a 5-4 majority vote that Ledbetter's complaint was time-barred because....
the discriminatory decisions relating to pay had been made more than 180 days prior to the date she filed her charge. The bill was re-introduced in the 111th Congress (as H.R. 11 and S. 181) in January 2009. It passed in the House of Representatives with 247 votes in support and 171 against Against FOR Vs. FIRING created:
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) PROMOTING SETTING WAGES HIRING TRAINING APPRENTICESHIP TESTING prohibited discrimination based on: IN: DISABILITY COLOR SEX RACE NATURAL ORIGIN RELIGION AGE Women had to obey their husbands
finacially, mentally and physically by
staying home taking care of children,
keeping a household and sometimes even
doing mens work. " We can no longer ignore the voice within women that say, I want something more than my husband, my children and my home." -requires employers to accomodate the religious practices of their employees when doing so does not impose "undue hardship on the conduct of the employer's business" Family and Medical
(1993) Reasons that apply to most
women taking leave are: The birth of a child,
and to care for the newborn child To care for spouse, son,
daughter, or parent with serious
health condition The first major piece of legistaltion
signed by Bill Clinton in 1993, the
Family and Medical Leave Act is
enforced by the department of Labor This act... entitles most workers to up to
12 weeks of job protected medical
leave for birth
or adoption covers private employers
with 50 or more employees State and local government employers
are covered by the FMLA regardless of the number of employees About 650,000 parents
take leave under the FMLA About 42% of all leave time
is taken by men; the vast
majority of parental
leave-takers are women Once men and women were offered leave on equal terms, they were supposed to take it on equal terms. Then men would thus share the burden of caring for children and women would achieve equality not only as parents, but also as workers Most men still don't take caretaking leave. Generally, women take caretaking leave whether they are guaranteed their job back or not. And overall, employers continue to view women as more costly - and therefore less desirable - as employees, because employers expect that women will take more leave than men. Republicans claim that if the FMLA was passed,
women would suffer discrimination at the hands of employers who
would then refuse to hire them at all. According to a Gallup poll,
40 % of employers agree that they are less likely to hire a woman
that is eligible for maternity leave. As one Representative warned, speaking "as the father of four daughters," the FMLA would "legislate women into unemployment," since "the primary responsibility for child care still falls mainly to women; [and] women will be the predominate ones using mandated leave." Women in 1992--as they do today--performed the majority of caretaking tasks for children, even in two-income households. If women must do most or all of the caretaking, it is difficult or impossible for them also to work without the ability to take leave if necessary. Therefore, some feminists argue that to promote equality, an amended FMLA would need to do more than simply accommodate motherhood, as the current FMLA does. The FMLA requires that employers
offer caretaking leave to men
on equal terms, which promotes sex
equality. The good news is that most employers
covered by the FMLA
have complied with
its terms and made caretaking leave
available on gender-neutral terms. Democrats argued that if the FMLA did not pass, women would suffer discrimination at the hands of employers who would refuse to take them back following leave for childbirth, parenting, or other caretaking commitments. The FMLA fills some gaps in existing law. It deprives most employers of the right to provide no leave for disability related to pregnancy or childbirth. And by doing so, it makes it less likely women will drop out of the work force when they have children. The overall goal of the Family and
Medical Leave Act was to bring families
closer together by allowing them to
spend more time with each other,
however, not many people took advantage
of that opportunity, and it triggered
many discriminatory problems for
women in the workforce. Negative Side Positive Side Reproductive Rights End of Gender Discrimination 1923 first
but did not
congress GOALS "To take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American
Society NOW" Statement of Purpose Economic Equality Women In Politics passed through the senate and congress
and was sent to the states for ratifications Equal Rights Amendment Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.
Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
Section 3. This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification. Late 1960s NOW took up the ERA
as one of their major issues March 22, 1972 ratified by 35/38 neccessary states Why did it fail? long ratification process tensions between feminists and traditionalists fear for family structure became a symbol of extremism N.O.W Now over 500,000 members Largest women's
in the US. works against domestic violence and workplace harrassment.
promotes women in the military.
fights for gay rights, constitutional equality, and reproductive freedom Griswold v Connecticut (1965) Accused:
Estelle Griswold - Executive director of the Planned Parenthood League of Connecticut
Dr. C. Lee Buxton - Physician and professor at the Yale School of Medicine
Griswold and Buxton were accused of giving information, instruction and other medical advice to married couples concerning birth control At the time, there was a law in CT that criminalized "the provision of counseling and other medical treatment to married persons for purposes of preventing conception" So? Decision: Although the Constitution does not explicitly protect a general right to privacy a combination of the First, Third, Fourth, and Ninth Amendments created the right to privacy in marital relations. The court decided in favor of Griswold with a vote of 7-2 Roe v Wade (1973) Accused:
Jane Roe - Alias for Norma McCorvey, a Texas resident who wanted to terminate her pregnancy Facts of the case: Roe (McCorvey) wanted to abort her pregnancy
In Texas, at the time, there was a law that forbade abortions unless it was to necessary to save the pregnant woman's life
The case was argued on December 25, 1971, reargued on October 11, 1972, and was decided on January 22, 1973 Decision: The court decided in favor of Roe on the fact that a woman's right to abortion falls under the right to privacy established in Griswold v CT. The vote was 7-2 in favor of Roe Nicholas Su
Sun Mook Lim i'm LBJ Title IX (1972) Law prohibited gender discrimination in athletic programs that receive federal funds Fedral Funds The number and quality of female high school and college athletes have increased numerosly when law activated. Any program that receives funding from government must not discriminate on gender for funds sorts programs Philosophy Effects Women have directly benefitted from new programs and new opportunities to participate at highest amateur level. V.S Women Man Decreased in sports programs. Colleges have cut programs that provied interest of athletes. No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination
under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance EX) UCLA's swimming program Title IX doesn't ask schools to cut men’s teams. College administrators make that choice rather than raise additional funding to support men and women’s programs on an equal footing. In 1979 Lilly Ledbetter, the plaintiff, began work at the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company in its Gadsden, Alabama location, a union plant. During her years at the factory as a salaried worker, raises were given and denied based on evaluations and recommendations regarding worker performance, as is typical. All merit increases had to be substantiated by a formal evaluation. In November 1998, after early retirement, Ledbetter sued claiming pay discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Pay Act of 1963. In March 1998, Ledbetter inquired into the possible sexual discrimination of the Goodyear Tire Company. In 2007, several Democratic members of Congress introduced the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, which revised the law to state that if a present act of discrimination pertains, prior acts outside of the 180-day statute of limitations for pay discrimination can be incorporated into the claim The Court also stated that according to those prior cases, Ledbetter’s claim that each check is an act of discrimination is inconsistent with the statute, because there was no evidence of discriminatory intent in the issuing of the checks. Betty Friedan and the Feminine Mystique Betty organized the women's strike for equality
which then led into the achievement of the Nineteenth
Amendment that granted women the right to vote.
Helped in organizing the National Organization for Women (NOW)
and became the president of this organization.
Organized the National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws stated all
women should have their choice to choose if they want to have an abortion.
She also organized the National Women's Political Caucus which helped gain equality for