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The Civil War

This prezi describes the battles of the American Civil War and uses a variety of YouTube clips to expland on key points and topics.

Jennifer Page

on 24 May 2010

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Transcript of The Civil War

The Civil War:

First Shots at Fort Sumter
When Southern states seceded, they took control of most of the federal forts within their borders...President Lincoln had to wrestle with a decision that might provoke war--what to do with the southern forts that remained under Union control?
Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, SC was one of these forts.
Lincoln decided to send supplies to the fort and he notified the Confederate leaders of his intention.
Union: The name given to the states that stayed loyal to the United States.
Confederacy: The name given to the states that seceded from the United States and called themselves the Confederate States of America.
April 12, 1861
Confederates decided to attack the fort before those supplies arrived.
Robert Anderson, the Union commander of the fort, surrendered to the Confederates.
WINNER: Confederates
Lincoln asks the Union states to provide 75,000 militiamen for 90 days to put down the rebellion in the South.
Citizens in the North were enthusiastic but states in the upper South were defiant and would either furnish no troops or they soon seceded too!
North Carolina
Choosing Sides
When Virginia joined the Confederacy...
The Confederate capital was moved to Richmond
Robert E. Lee, a famous military leader, became the general of the Confederate Army
What would the border states do?
What do these states have in common?
They were slave states that bordered states where slavery was illegal.
All four border states decide to stay with the Union.
The Creation of West Virginia:
The western counties of Virginia, where most people did not own slaves, broke away from the Confederacy, created West Virginia in 1863, and supported the Union.
24 Union States
11 Confederate States
Confederate Strategy
Fight a defensive war because support for the war in the North would weaken if the fighting went on for a long time
Planned that foreign dependence on their cotton would bring military aid from Great Britain and France, but European countries had enough cotton without trading with the South.
Union Strategy
The Anaconda Plan!!!
Invade and conquer the South with...
How does this depict the Anaconda Plan?
The Anaconda Plan was developed by General Winfield Scott and was designed to strangle the South's economy like a giant anaconda snake squeezing its prey.
The Anaconda Plan
Plan Goals:
a naval blockade of the South's coastline
taking control of the Mississippi River to split the Confederacy in two
capture Richmond, VA the Confederate capital
Richmond, VA was only 100 miles away from Washington, DC!
Why was it SO IMPORTANT to keep Maryland with the Union?
Because if it seceded the U.S. capital, Washinton, D.C. would be surrounded by the C.S.A. (Confederate States of America)
First Battle of Bull Run
(called Mananas by the South)
July 16, 1861
Union: General Irvin McDowell
Confederate: General P.G.T. Beauregard & Stonewall Jackson
Union forces marched to Mananas along with hundreds of spectators from Washington, D.C. who expected a quick and entertaining battle
The Union named most battles after physical features like streams, while the South named most after the towns where they took place.
The Confederates were driven back at first, but Thomas Jackson and his men stopped the Union advance...he became known as "Stonewall" Jackson for this reason.
Confederates then counterattacked while letting out a blood-curdling scream that became known as the "rebel yell" and the Union soldiers and spectators ran for their lives!
WINNER: Confederates
The North was shocked and the Battle of Bull Run made several points clear:
fighting would be bloody
war would not be over quickly
Southern soldiers would fight fiercely to defend the Confederacy
Lincoln realized that 90-day militias were no match for Confederate forces and he called for a real army of 500,000 men for 3 years.
George McClellan becomes the commander of the Union army in the East.

Union Strengths
Confederate Weaknesses
Confederate Strengths
Union Weaknesses
large population (22 million)
85% of nation's factories (manufacturing)
70% of nation's railroad mileage
almost all the nations naval vessels and shipyards
Most of the gold and banks were in the North
Better technology access
had to depend on long supply lines
fewer good military leaders than South
soldiers fighting an offensive war
vast size of the Confederacy
good generals
soldiers fighting a defensive war to protect their homeland
smaller population (5.5 million free; 3.5 million enslaved)
few factories
fewer railroads
no naval power
most of wealth was in land and slaves, not money
The Battle of the Ironclads:
Monitor vs. Merrimack

March, 1862
Ironclad: a naval warship that was covered in iron.
Advantages of Ironclads:
faster due to steam engines
better-protected than wooden ships
Union: Monitor
Confederate: Merrimack (Union ship that the Confederates renamed The Virginia)
The battle between the Monitor and Merrimack (Virginia) was the first battle between 2 ironclad ships
The battle lasted a whole day, but neither ship could sink the other!
WINNER: It was a tie!
The War in the West
McClellan prepared and drilled Union troops in the East, but did not want to attack Richmond. This FRUSTRATED Lincoln...but at least another Union general was doing something...
Ulysses S. Grant
"Find out where our enemy is. Get at him as soon as you can. Strike at him as hard as you can, and keep moving on."
In February, 1862 Grant attacked several Confederate river forts along the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers in Tennessee, which opened up a river highway into the heart of the South. Union gunboats could now travel by river as far as northern Alabama...a week later Union troops march into Nashville.
The Battle of Shiloh
Union: Generals Grant & Sherman
Confederate: Generals Johnston & Beauregard
Grant followed as Johnston retreated into Mississippi, but had to wait for more troops. While he was waiting Johnston led a surprise attack near Shiloh Church...this was the fiercest Civil War battle yet
Union general William Tecumseh Sherman had 3 horses shot out from under him! There were many casualties:
Union: 13,000 (1/5 of the 65,000 who had fought)
Confederate: 11,000 out of 41,000
In the North, many were angry with Grant for losing so many men without surrendering, but Lincoln had to support him because he fought battles when McClellan would not.
Fall of New Orleans
April 25, 1862
Union leader Admiral David Farargut captured New Orleans, the largest city in the South.
IMPACT? After this victory and Grant's, all but 150 miles of the Mississippi River were controlled by the Union...they had almost succeeded in cutting the Confederacy in two!
However, the Confederates still controlled Vicksburg, Mississippi and that would be very difficult to capture.
Seven Days' Battles
Union: McClellan
Confederate: Lee
McClellan was slowly marching toward Richmond to capture the Confederate capital, but Lee attacked first.
June 25-July 1, 1862
Union: 15,849
Confederate: 20,000

Even though the Confederates lost more men, McClellan was forced to retreat and the plan to capture Richmond had failed!
2nd Battle of Bull Run
Late August, 1862
Confederates won again and Union troops retreated to Washington, D.C.
IMPACT? Lee had ended the Union threat in Virginia
Lee Invades the Union
Lee wanted to take advantage of his recent victories and invade the Union. He wrote to President Jefferson Davis to inform him of this plan, but did not wait for his response.
September, 1862
Lee reverses the Southern strategy of fighting a purely defensive war and he crosses the Potomac River to invade Maryland.
(Maryland, a border state, is Union territory although it is still considered a southern state and upheld slavery.)
Lee's Reasons for Invasion of the Union:
He hoped a victory in the North might force Lincoln into peace talks.
The invasion would give VA farmers a rest from the war during the harvest season.
Confederates could plunder from Union farms for food.
He hoped the invasion would show that the Confederacy could win the war, which might influence Britain and France to side with the South.
Battle of Antietam
Lee drew up plans for his Northern invasion, but a Confederate officer accidentally left a copy of the battle plans wrapped around 3 cigars at a campsite. Union soldiers found the plans and gave McClellan a chance to stop Lee!
September 17, 1862
Union: McClellan
Confederate: Lee
McClellan moved slowly (as usual) and gave Lee a chance to know he was coming. The armies clashed at Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, MD.
(A.K.A. Sharpsburg)
The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest day in American history.
After fighting all day, neither side had gained any ground by nightfall. the difference was that 23,000 men were dead or wounded.
Lee lost 1/4 of his fighting force and withdrew to Virginia.
McClellan was too cautious to follow and missed a chance to finish off the crippled Southern army.
Lincoln was so frustrated that he fired McClellan in November 1862!
The Emancipation Proclamation
As Union armies invaded the South, many enslaved people escaped from plantations.
"My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union. I shall do less whenever I shall believe what I am doing hurts the cause, and I shall do more whenever I shall believe doing more will help the cause."
"To fight against slaveholders, without fighting against slavery, is but a half-hearted business, and paralyzes the hands engaged in it...Fire must be met with water...War for the destruction of liberty [by the South] must be met with war for the destruction of slavery."
-Frederick Douglass
At first Lincoln's goal was to preserve the Union, NOT END SLAVERY! Why?
He did not himself like slavery, but he wasn't sure ending it was constitutional AND he did not want to anger the border states that had slavery and stayed with the Union. Also, many northerners opposed emancipation.
After Antietam, when the Union was in a position of strength, Lincoln was ready to act. Freeing slaves would help weaken the South.
January 1, 1863
The Emancipation Proclamation declared that all slaves in Confederate-held territory were FREE.
Do you think it freed many slaves? Why/Why not?
It did NOT free many slaves! The Union army could only enforce the proclamation in the Confederate territory under its control. Most slaves lived in areas far removed from the Union army and remained under the control of plantation owners.
Why would Lincoln only free the slaves in the Confederacy?
Lincoln believed that the Constitution did not give him the power to free all the slaves, but because freeing the slaves in the South would weaken their war effort, it could be seen as a military action. He claimed that he had the MILITARY AUTHORITY to do it.
Although it did not free many slaves, the Emancipation Proclamation had a HUGE moral effect on the Union cause...the war was no longer just a war to preserve the Union, but now also a war to free millions of Americans from slavery.
Also, African-Americans in border states, loyal to the Union, were STILL ENSLAVED! (Some reward for working for the Union, huh?)
Northern Democrats were angry about emancipation because they thought it would prolong the war.
White Southerners were angered because many slaves ran away to the Union to become soldiers.
African-American Soldiers
The Emancipation Proclamation also stated that African-American men willing to fight would be "received into the armed service of the United States."
Frederick Douglass thought that military service would be the first step to citizenship for African-Americans.
Before the Proclamation recruitement of African-American soldiers was discouraged and only a few regiments were formed.
Once the restriction was lifted African-Americans rushed to join the army.
180,000 black soldiers wore the blue uniform of the Union army by the end of the war.
African-American soldiers were organized into166 all-black regiments, usually led by white officers. The were paid less than white soldiers. More than one regiment insisted that they fight without pay rather than accept lower pay.
The 54th Massachusetts
was one of the first African-American regiments organized in the North.
had two sons of Frederick Douglass
July 1863 Led the heroic attack on Fort Wagner in SC...soldiers bravery made them famous
if captured African-American soldiers faced more danger than white soldiers...Confederate government threatened to execute them or return them to slavery rather than make them prisioners of war
Enslaved people did their best to weaken the Confederacy...they slowed their work or stopped working altogether.
Disagreements about the War & Draft Laws
Some southern areas opposed secession like West Virginia.
Copperheads (named after a poisonous snake that strikes without warning) were Northern Democrats who opposed Lincoln and the war...they wanted peace with the South.
Lincoln had protestors arrested and also suspended the writ of habeas corpus, which prevents government from holding citizens without formal charges.
As the war continued, both sides needed more men for the army. They passed laws of CONSCRIPTION, also known as the draft to require men to serve in the military.
Draft laws were VERY unfair to the poor:
In the South, planters with more than 20 slaves were not required to serve in the army.
In the Union and Confederacy the rich could pay substitutes to serve in their place.
In the north, many immigrants were forced to join the army as soon as they arrived in the United States.
The draft became VERY unpopular and in July, 1863 anger over the draft and simmering racial tensions led to the 4-day-long New York City draft riots.
Irish-Americans and others destroyed property & attacked African-Americans...over 1,000 people were killed or wounded and the Union army was called in to stop the riots.
Experience #2: Draft Activity
"The Bonnie Blue Flag"
Is this a Union or Confederate song?
List three words that describe the mood of the song.
"Tenting Tonight"
Is this a Union or Confederate song?
List three words that describe the mood of the song.
Experience #1: Women Spies
Read section 22.2 Bull Run: A Great Awakening in the History Alive Textbook up to the heading "The Battle of Bull Run" (page 426)

In groups of 4, members of your group must pretend to be Rose O'Neal Greenhow or one of her friends living in Washington, D.C. You have received some information about the plans of the Union army that you must communicate to Confederate leaders.

Write your message in secret code. In less than 2 minutes write the message below on a piece of scrap paper in a secret code. Encode the message by substituting numbers for letters--1 for "A" 2 for "B" and so on.

Secret Message: A large Union force is moving toward Bull Run near Manassas, Virginia.
Strengths & Weaknesses
Decide how you want to conceal your message. You must carry your message out of Washington, D.C. (your group), past the Union army (your teacher), to the front of the classroom (general headquarters for the Confederate army). Only one group member can carry the message.

You will be interrogated by the Union army. When the teacher calls on you, stand and respond to the questions asked.

Respond to the following questions:
How did you feel during this experience?
How do you think Rose O'Neal Greenhow secretly conveyed military information to Confederate leaders before the Battle of Bull Run?
What other roles do you think women played during the Civil War?

Read the rest of section 22.2 (Women Support the War) and describe other roles women had in the war in your notes.

The Battle of Gettysburg
In 1863 the war in the East seemed to be going well for the Confederacy with Victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, so Lee decided to invade the North.
He hoped that a victory on Union territory would fuel Northern discontent and bring calls for peace.
He also hoped that a Southern victory would leave European nations to recognize the Confederacy as an independent nation.
July 1-3, 1863
Fighting went on for three days in Gettysburg, PA.
Union: Gen. George Meade
Confederacy: Gen. Robert E. Lee
Union forces tried to hold their ground on Cemetery Ridge and Confederate soldiers tried to dislodge them.
The turning point in the battle was when on July 3, General George Pickett mounted a direct attack on the middle of the Union line...it was a deadly mistake.
15,000 Confederate troops charged up the ridge into heavy Union fire.
Pickett's Charge was a failure and Confederate forces retreated and waited for a counterattack, but once again Lincoln's generals FAILED to COMPLETELY DEFEAT Lee's army!
(Lincoln was FURIOUS and went looking for a new general...)
Even so, the Union rejoiced over the victory and Lee's hopes for a Confederate victory in the North were crushed.
Union: 23,000 men (1/4 of army)
Confederate: 28,000 men (1/3 of army)
The South never recovered from this defeat and the war stayed in the South.
The teacher will have you draw envelopes out of a hat. Please keep these closed until later.
Members of your group of four must pretend to be men from different towns in New York who are eligible to be drafted into the Union army.
Report to the recruiting office when your group's number is called (walk to the front of the classroom) and bring your envelope with you.
Depending on the money in your envelope, you will either report to basic training or return to your hometown (desk). If you have $300 you can hire someone else to take your place in the draft and you can return home; if you don't have $300 you must be drafted into the army. For basic training report to the back of the room for exercises.
Respond to these debriefing questions:
What is unfair about this method of drafting soldiers?
What type of men do you think mostly served in the Union army?
How do you think people in the North reacted to this method of drafting soldiers?

Read "Opposition on the Union Home Front" on page 431 of the History Alive textbook..
The Siege of Vicksburg
May-July 4, 1863
After Grant had opened up most of the Mississippi River with his other victories in the west, he set his sights on Vicksburg, the last Confederate stronghold on the river.
Vicksburg was located on a sharp bend in the river and had high ground on which to place cannon. This made a direct attack difficult, so Grant decided to lay siege to the city.
Grant surrounded the city and prevented the delivery of food and supplies.
Eventually the Confederates ran out of food and moved into caves to protect themselves from the bombardment.
After a month and a half, they surrendered
Fulfilled a major part of the Anaconda Plan because the Union now completely controlled the Mississippi River, so the South was split in two.
With the victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, the tide of war turned in favor of the Union.
In General Grant, Lincoln saw a general that might be able to defeat General Lee. Grant took over in March, 1864 as commander of all Union armies.
Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
Four months after the draft riots, Lincoln traveled to Gettysburg.
Thousands of men who had died there had be buried in a new cemetery that overlooked the battlefield and Lincoln was invited to speak at the dedication of this new burial ground.
Other speakers said more, and some even talked for more than an hour, but Lincoln only spoke a few words.
Most of the 15,000 people there could not hear him (no modern-day sound equipment or microphones), but the nation would never forget the Gettysburg Address.
The president reminded his audience that the war was testing whether a nation "conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal...can long endure."
"The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here."
Sherman's March to the Sea
Grant called for all Union forces to coordinate their attacks. Grant would pursue Lee's army in Virginia while Union forces under General William Tecumseh Sherman pushed through the Deep South.
Grant Takes Charge
What is Total War?
Total war is war on the enemy's will to fight and its ability to support an army.
Grant instructed his generals to burn crops, cities, and manufacturing centers. He also had them destroy the Southern railroads to hurt supply lines.
Grant's losses at times totaled more than Lee's entire army, but the Union had plenty of fresh troops thanks to immigrants...the South did not.
Grant's Virginia Campain Battles:
Battle of the Wilderness: Grant suffers 17,000 casualties but tells Lincoln "Whatever happens...we will not retreat."
Cold Harbor: Grant loses 7,000 men in just the first 15 minutes of battle! Some men were so sure that they would die that they pinned their names and addresses on their jackets so that their bodies could be identified.
Petersburg (just outside of Richmond): could not break through Confederate defenses, so they set a 9 month siege
Sherman took Atlanta, GA in September, 1864.
Sherman's victory greatly affected the election of 1864:
Northerners were tired of war
Peace Democrats had nominated George McClellan to run against Lincoln and stood a chance of winning on an antiwar platform.
When Sherman captured Atlanta, Northerners could sense victory and Lincoln won reelection.
November, 1864 Sherman burns Atlanta and sets out on a terrifying march to the sea.
Sherman took "total war" to heart and burned/destroyed a path that was 60 miles WIDE and 300 miles LONG on his way to Savannah and then north.
He tore up railroad lines
he destroyed crops
He burned and looted towns

His goal was to join Grant in Virginia and to also tear into the heart of the Confederacy.
His march also increased the size of the army, as in Georgia alone, more than 19,000 former slaves left plantations and followed the Union army to freedom.
For the destruction on his "March to the Sea" many southerners hated Sherman the most of all the Union Generals...this even continues today.
Surrender at Appomattox
While Grant was on his Virginia campaign, William Tecumseh Sherman was on a "March to the Sea"...
After 9 months of Grant's siege at Petersburg, the gateway to Richmond, the Union forces finally broke through on April 1, 1865 and captured the city...two days later they marched into Richmond.
Grant quickly surrounded Lee's army
"There is nothing left for me to do but go and see General Grant, and I would rather die a thousand deaths."
-Robert E. Lee
April 9, 1865
Grants Generous Terms of Surrender:
Confederate Soldiers were allowed to go home if they promised to fight no longer.
They could take their horses and mules for spring plowing.
Officers could keep their swords and weapons
Grant ordered that food be sent to Lee's starving troops.
Lee accepted the terms.
As Lee returned to his headquarters, Union soldiers began to shoot their guns and cheer wildly, but Grant told them to stop celebrating. Why do you think he did this?
"The war is over...the rebels are our countrymen again."
- Ulysses S. Grant
The Costs of War
The Civil War was the deadliest war in United States history.
In 4 years 620,000 soldiers died
320,000 Union
260,000 Confederate

275,000 Union & 100,000 Confederate soldiers were wounded.

The North and South spent enormous amounts of money on the war.
The South, where almost all battles were fought was in ruins.
farms and plantations were destroyed
40% of livestock was killed and 50% of farm machinery was wrecked
factories were demolished
railroads were torn up
The Northern economy rebounded quickly after the war, but the South's could not...this led to an economic gap between the North and the South that would last for decades.
Now, the job that was left was the enormous task of putting the broken country back together...this is called RECONSTRUCTION...but that is a topic for another day.
Experience #3: Appomattox
In this experience your group of 4 must pretend to be officers in the general staff of Union general Ulysses S. Grant. Grant has just received a note from General Robert E. Lee requesting a truce. You must be prepared to advise General Grant on how to treat Lee and the Confederate army.

Discuss issues 1-3 in your group and present your advice to "General Grant" (your teacher). Select a spokesperson for each issue to share your group's rationale for your answers.
ISSUE #1: How should soldiers in Lee's army be treated?
A: Allow them to depart peacefully, if they agree to surrender their weapons and promised to be loyal to the Union.
B: Require them to pay a large fine to help pay off the cost of the war.
C: Place them in prisons, and require them to serve time for being traitors.
ISSUE #2: What type of aid, if any, should be provided to Lee's army?
A: provide clothing, food, and medical care
B: provide only food
C: ignore all requests for aid
ISSUE #3: What should be done with General Lee?
A: Allow him to return home and begin a new life.
B: Require him to use his engineering skills to rebuild parts of the South destroyed by war.
C: Arrest him and place him on trial for treason, and--if convicted--have him hanged.
Respond to these debriefing questions:
How do you think most people in the North wanted to treat Lee and the Confederate army after they surrendered?
What terms do you think Grant offered Lee in the peace treaty ending the Civil War?
If you were Grant, what terms would you have offered Lee in the peace treaty ending the Civil War?
Union wins
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