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European Annotated Mural
Transcript of European Annotated Mural
Church Jonathan Chelsea Sara Caleb Chelsea Sara Jonathan The Decline of Feudalism Chelsea Sara Jonathan Caleb The Scientific Revolution The Reformation This image represents the selling of indulgences during the Middle Ages by the Catholic Church. The church officials sold them to get money to help the church. Martin Luther also read the bible and discovered that salvation was received in faith that was a gift from God. The church believed that the keys to salvation was keeping the sacraments and living a good life. Martin Luther then broke away from the church, translated the bible into German, and organized a new Christian denomination called Lutheranism. Then people started to follow Martin Luther and they were known as protestants, they then influenced the world in religion. Jonathan Chelsea Sara Caleb Caleb This picture represents the Roman Catholic Church.The Medieval church was formed in Europe, called the Roman Catholic church. The church's power developed over time, and sometimes were overly powerful. At times like these, the Roman Catholic took chance to show their power, such as when they required people to pay tax to them, and even forced the ruler of Europe to resign to their practices. Nearly everyone attended the church teachings, which explained how to gain an eternal life and how to enter heaven. The church often got caught in conflict with high officials, but still were persistent to teach their teachings. The church affected most of the people in Europe, and were soon one of the largest organization in Europe, and had influenced most of the people to believe in god. The system of feudalism consisted of monarchs, lords and ladies, knights, peasants, and other peasants lower than peasants called serfs. It all started when Western Europe was threatened by the Muslims, Magyars, and Vikings. After that, they decided they wanted, and needed, order and protection. They wanted to organize each person into each class, and protect each other from the three groups. Each class had to exchange certain things with each other. For example, monarchs had to give the lords and ladies peasants while the lord and ladies gave them their loyalty; Lords and ladies gave knights homage while knights gave military services; Knights protected the peasants while the peasants paid their rent. This image is the European Feudal System. This system consists of monarchs, nobles, knights, and then peasants in that order. The monarchs gave fiefs to his most important lords and received knights for exchange. Peasants worked for lords in return for a small plot of land of their own to farm. There were peasants called serfs, that could not leave their lord's estate. This system did influence modern Europe. This system helped medieval Europe by having more protection and not as much invasions. The social classes of Feudal Western Europe were the Monarch, who was the supreme ruler and ruled all the land in the kingdom. The lords and ladies came next, they were landowners and also sat as judges in manor courts. The monarch also often depended on nobles to provide soldiers during wartime. Below lords were the knights, who pledges their loyalty their lord, monarch and church, and fought during times of war. The lowest social class was the peasants, who worked the land, and the serfs who were lower than them because they were tied to the land they worked on. This picture represents the buildings made in the Americas. The Americas consisted of three major empires: The Aztecs, the Mayans, and the Incas. These mighty empires were surprised at the arrival of the Europeans, and some of them accepted them as if they were a gift from the gods. But the Europeans conquered the Aztecs without mercy. The Mayans and the Incas were still functioning well, and were using feudalism as well. The Americas were greatly influenced by the Europeans, and some of their culture changed significantly. Many of the empires decided to use the Europeans' strategy of social structures, either by force or decision. The pope had the most power in the church, and after him came the Cardinals, Archbishops and Bishops, Priests. The people with the lowest position in the clergy were Monks and Nuns. The church as a whole gained lots of economic power when they became Europe's largest landholder. They also gained power economically when they started collecting tax and expected people to give a tenth of their money. If they couldn't give this money then people were expected to produce labor for the chuch. This image represents the tribute system the Aztecs used. They were part of the Americas which consisted of the Mayas, the Incas, and the Aztecs. The Aztecs were influenced by the Toltec and the Teotihuacan. The Incas decided to spread their civilizations when a neighboring people tried to conquer them. The Mayans had groups of people that had different lifestyles. They were influenced by the Europeans and some even changed their culture. (Or Nobles) This picture represents the battles waged during the decline of feudalism and the conflict when it fell. The decline of feudalism was an event when feudalism decreased in power. One of the causes was the Bubonic Plague, a disease that was thought to come from a trading ship from Asia. There were other reasons for this decline, such as the 100-Year War, in which power was shifted from the monarchs and other social structure roles. Monarchs gained power, while lesser social roles were not considered as much. The Decline of Feudalism caused the Magna Cart to be formed, which influenced all monarchs and changed many citizens' lives, and introduced to everyone how the monarch could not take anyone's rights away. The person had to be judged by trustworthy or close people to actually be judged. This picture represents Martin Luther, who declined from the church and created another group who had free access to read the Bible. The Reformation was an event when the Catholic church was corrupted, and when they taught that people could sell their indulgences to forgive their wrong doings. Then a man, Martin Luther, broke away from the church. He then rewrote the Bible, granting many people access to read it who were not allowed to. After many years, the church disbanded into many groups, and people started joining Martin Luther. They were called Protestants, and influenced the world in religion. Gravity This picture represent Isaac's Theory of gravity, a discovery made during the Scientific Revolution. The Scientific Revolution was an era during medieval Europe in which many scientific discoveries were made. There were astronomers that questioned the ideas of space, and whether the Earth was or was not the center of the universe. And others, such as Isaac Newton, studied gravity. During this time, the Scientific Method was also made, in which to conduct and analyze an experiment. This image represents the geocentric and the heliocentric theory. The geocentric theory was the theory of all the stars and planets orbiting around Earth. Then, Copernicus and developed the heliocentric theory where all the planets and stars orbited around the sun. There were people who then developed new theories with the use of new technology like the telescope. Galileo discovered, with the telescope, that the moon's surface was rough and uneven and there are four moons revolving around the planet Jupiter, and those discoveries supported the heliocentric theory. Also, Isaac Newman developed the law of gravity when he was trying to figure out what kept the moon traveling in its orbit around Earth, then an apple fell off a tree and then he figured out his answer. The word renaissance means rebirth, and the Renaissance was the rebirth of interest in learning and classical art. This interest and passion started in Italy and spread throughout the rest of Europe. Most artists of the Renaissance have created pieces that are instantly recognizable today such as Leonardo Da Vinci's Mona Lisa. As a result of the renaissance, Europe became a money-based economy and was no longer a barter economy. This is because coins became more popular and people started paying for their purchases instead of trading for them. In the church, the highest in rank was the Pope. Next were the cardinals, then archbishops and bishops, then the priests, and finally the monks and nuns. As the largest landowner in Europe, they were very wealthy. By gaining wealth, they collected taxes from the commoners. If the people weren't able to pay, they worked for the church. To receive salvation people had to follow the church's teachings and live a moral life. If one failed to receive salvation they would eternally suffer in hell. The renaissance was the rebirth of classical art and learning. As trade grew, the money-based economy created cities and new classes of wealthy people who were able to support art and learning. The money-based economy developed because of the different kinds of money merchants received from customers, and how moneychangers had to convert on currency to another. Then, there were humanists. Humanists believed that everybody was able to control their own lives and achieve greatness. This image is a 15th century world map that was drawn accordingly to the work of Ptolemy, a 2nd-century geographer. Improved cartography, compasses, astrolabe, and lines of latitude and longitude helped make exploration easier. With those improved things, explorers found new lands. For example: Christopher Columbus found a land mass between Europe and Asia and found people there which they called Indians, but they were he was searching for the Indies.. The Age of Exploration impacted Europe with new goods and increased European's knowledge of the world. The Reformation started when the first Protestants protested against the corruption in the Catholic church. Another large part in starting the Reformation was when Martin Luther translated the Bible into German, which was a language that the people of the country could read. This eliminated the need for a middleman. Now the people could reach god without the help of a priest, the pope etc. so they no longer needed the church. Also, Martin Luther believed that you didn't gain salvation by working and earning it, but that it was given in faith. Salvation was a gift from god. The age of Exploration started when Europeans wanted to break the hold Muslims and Italians had on trade. Another reason there were more explorations is because new inventions were being made that helped exploring easier. These inventions were the astrolabe, and the compass. Another way exploration became easier was because of improved latitude, longitude, and cartography. As a result of exploration being easier and taking less time, less supplies were needed and there was more money. The reformation started when Catholics who stopped going to church, known as protestants, protested against the church for false information and dishonest behavior. The selling of indulgences worried many Catholics because instead of earning salvation, all you did was pay for it. After Martin Luther translated the bible into German, many people found out that the church was not the main resource of religious authority. According to Martin Luther, the way to gain salvation is to receive faith. The way you receive faith is to accept the words of the bible, and be sorry for your sins. During the Scientific Revolution Copernicus came up with the heliocentric theory which contradicted the geocentric theory. It stated that the sun was the center of the universe, not the earth. Galileo used his telescope and found proof that Copernicus's heliocentric theory was accurate. But the church felt threatened by this theory because it contradicted what they'd been teaching people. Another important discovery during the Scientific Revolution was Sir Isaac Newton's discovery of gravity. This image represents the Hundred Years of War between England and France. The decline of feudalism caused the Magna Carta which is a written legal agreement that limited the English monarch's power. The Magna Carta was a result that the
king could live by different
Then, the bubonic plague and wars, such as the Hundred Years of War, were caused by the decline of feudalism. They both led shift of power from feudal lords to common people and monarchs. Copernicus came up with the theory of the sun as the center of the universe, also known as the heliocentric theory. Before that, people believed that the Earth was the center of the universe, so the sun and the other planets orbited Earth. That was called the geocentric theory. During the Scientific Revolution, Galileo made discoveries with his telescope. For example, he discovered that if Venus went through phases, then it must have meant that it was orbiting the sun, because the sun lit Venus. The church felt threatened by Galileo's support for the heliocentric theory because they have already been teaching people that the geocentric theory was true. And if they told the people it was not, the people would start doubting them. This image is represents cathedrals, which were large churches headed by bishops that contained medieval art and architecture. During the start of the Middle Ages, all Christians belonged to a single church that was known as the Roman Catholic Church. The organization or the hierarchy of that church was the pope, cardinals, arch bishops and bishops, priests, and then monks and nuns. The church taught that people gained salvation by following the church's teachings and living a moral life. Also, pilgrims traveled to visit holy sites and relics. During that time, most art was made for a religious purpose, paintings and sculptures of Christians saints and Christ were placed in churches, such as cathedrals, to help people worship. The Europeans were motivated to travel the world when Muslims closed the trade route from Asia to Europe, and each party's prices rose. Improved cartography and lines of latitude and longitude made traveling easier by giving explorers a more accurate view of the world. The improved compasses and astrolabes also helped by helping explorers find their way while traveling. Capitalism grew as a result of exploration and trade. Merchants gained wealth by selling and trading goods from around the world. There were three main civilization that made up the Americas at the time. They were the Maya, Inca and Aztec. These civilizations collapsed when they caught diseases from the european explorers. These diseases included small pox and measles. Another reason these civilizations collapsed was when long periods of drought caused crop failure and they didn't have enough food. There were many contributing factors that led to the decline of feudalism. Some of them were the bubonic plague and the hundred years war. The bubonic plague was also known as the black death. It is believed that it reached Europe from Asia through trading routes. The hundred years war was a war between England and France. The main reason for the decline of feudalism was the bubonic plague. The black plague was known to start in Central Asia, spread throughout China, traveled along the silk road, to the black sea, with the Italians by boat, and spread throughout Europe. Since many workers died, and peasants were the ones that had to help work, the workers that were left were able to demand better pay and more right. One result of the signing of the Magna Carta was that monarchs could not take away anyone’s rights and liberties. The agreement said that if he were to keep his place as monarch, he would have to keep common laws, and traditional rights. He would have to consult the nobles, the church's archbishops, and bishops before "imposing special taxes". The three main empires of The Americas was The Inca, The Maya, and The Aztec. These three groups were all eliminated. One reasons was because of the diseases that came from Europe. Another was because of being conquered by explorers from Europe. Another reason was the droughts that happened, and limited amounts of crops and food. This image represents Francesco Petratch who is considered the founder of Italian Renaissance humanism. The Renaissance was about the great rebirth of interest in classical art and learning, and that began with the rediscovery of the classical world of ancient Greece and Rome. During this time, there was the growth of trade and commerce. People bartered, traded goods for other goods, and people started using coins to buy things and that created a money economy. Those were all caused by the increase of trade. Also during that time, there was an interest in humanism that first arose in Italy and were studied by humanists. Humanists believed that everyone had the ability to control their own lives and achieve greatness, which is what humanists discovered as a new way of looking at life. That concludes our presentation!
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