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PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS
Transcript of PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS
Eukaryotic What is a prokaryotic cell? Cells that lack a membrane-bound nucleus are called prokaryotes. These cells have few internal structures that are distinguishable under a microscope. Cells in the monera kingdom such as bacteria and cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae) are prokaryotes. What is a eukaryotic cell? Eukaryotic cells comprose all of the life kingdoms except monera. They can be easily distinguished through a membrane-bound nucleus. Eukaryotic cells also contain many internal membrane-bound structures called organelles. These organelles such as the mitochondrion or chloroplast serve to perform metabolic functions and energy conversion. Other organelles like intracellular filaments provide structural support and cellular motility. Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic cells differ significantly from eukaryotic cells.
They don't have a membrane-bound nucleus and instead of having chromosomal DNA, their genetic information is in a circular loop called a plasmid.
Prokaryotic cells feature three major shapes: rod shaped, spherical, and spiral. Instead of going through elaborate replication processes like eukaryotes, bacterial cells divide by binary fission. Unlike eukaryotic cells that depend on oxygen for their metabolism, prokaryotic cells enjoy a diverse array of metabolic functions. For example, some bacteria use sulfur instead of oxygen in their metabolism. THANKS! Plant cell Cell Membrane 1)Protects the inner part of the cell
2)Separates the cytoplasm from intercellular space
3)Allows the passage of ions, substances etc. by diffusion or transport proteins in or out of cell
4)Contains receptors for hormones mainly but other substances also.
5)Contains glycolipids that act as cell markers. They mark the cell in a certain tissue with a certain type for certain functions. Cell Membrane Cell Wall Cell Walls are only found in plant cells. It is made out of a non-living-cellulose. The cell wall also gives protection to the cell membrane and the cell in general. Also the cell wall protects the cell from getting viruses. Also the cell wall is the outer layer of the cell membrane It allows water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other dissolved materials to go in and out of the cell. Cytoplasm The cytoplasm is where all the work in the cell is done. Nutrients are absorbed, transported, and processed within the cytoplasm. It can be found in both the plant and animal cell. The cytoplasm also provides a physical structure for the cell. Vacuole Vacuole Functions Are
1) Removing unwanted structural debris
2) Isolating materials that might be harmful to the cell
3) Containment of waste products
4) Maintaining internal hydrostatic pressure or turgor within the cell
5) Maintaining an acidic internal pH
6) Containing small molecules
7)Exporting unwanted substances from the cell.
8)Enabling the cell to change shape. Ribosome Ribosomes are cell organelles that consist of RNA and proteins. They are responsible for assembling the proteins of the cell. Depending on the protein production level of a particular cell, ribosomes may number in the millions. Golgi body The Golgi body packages the protein type items in a cell for storage into vesicles. Some of the vesicles are secretions that the cell will give off, some are lysosomes, and so on. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum The smooth endoplasmic reticulum has functions in several metabolic processes, including synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates and calcium concentration, drug detoxification, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins. It is connected to the nuclear envelope. It is found in a variety of cell types (both animal and plant) and it serves different functions in each. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum The rough endoplasmic reticulum is a membranous structure that associates closely with the nucleus. Embedded in the membrane of the structure are ribosomes, this is what gives the "rough" appearance. RNA passes through the ribosomes where its sequence of nucleic acid codes for specific amino acids to be joined up in a specific order. The route through the ribosomes for the amino acid takes them into the membranes of the reticulum where they can be kept together. They are then moved of in vesicles formed from the ER membranes to the Golgi Apparatus to be packaged and processed. Chloroplast Chloroplast is a food making structure in green color because of chlorophyll site of photosynthesis Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll molecules which absorb the sun's energy and convert it to chemical energy which can be used to fuel chemical reactions in the cell. They help plants live. Mitochondria The main function of the mitochondrion is the production of energy, in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The cell uses this energy to perform the specific work necessary for cell survival and function. The breakdown of unwanted macromolecules is the main function of these organelles. In addition, they are also involved in cell membrane repair and play a major role in the immune response against foreign bodies like bacteria, viruses and other antigens. A detailed account of the role they play in various cellular processes has been given below. Lysosomes Microtubules Microtubules play a huge role in movement within a cell. They form the spindle fibers that manipulate and separate chromosomes during mitosis. Examples of microtubule fibers that assist in cell division include polar fibers and kinetochore fibers. Nucleus It is where DNA does its work Sequences of DNA are transcribed into fragments of messenger RNA, which are then sent to the ribosomes to control the manufacture of proteins during cell growth and reproduction. So the function of the nucleus is to send out copies of the blueprints for building proteins, which in turn control every aspect of cellular activity. The nucleus controls all cell activity. The nucleolus present in it synthesizes RNA and ribosomal protiens. animal cell