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The Scientific Revolution (7.10.2)
Transcript of The Scientific Revolution (7.10.2)
the importance of the new inventions (telescope, microscope, thermometer, and barometer). lets take a closer look First there was... Johannes Kepler was born in 1571 and died in 1630. He is a German scientist, astronomer, and astrologer. Kepler is best known for his eponymous laws for planetary motion, which later provided one of the foundations to Sir Isaac Newton's law of gravity. The Laws of Law #1 The first law explains that the sun is not at the middle but a focus. Then, the planet follows ellipse in an orbit, which tells us that the Earth-Sun distance changes as the planet goes around in an orbit. This picture proves that the orbit is eccentric. Law #2 The second law explains how the line joining the sun and planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times, which states that planets move faster when it is near at the sun. The planet cancels its elliptical motion while changing its angular speed as it moves. Kepler's law proved that planets move fastest when it is near perihelion, the sun, and slowest when it is near aphelion, the greatest seperation. Law #3 The last and final law shows the equation Kepler used to figure out how long it took a planet to orbit the sun. "P" stands for the period of revolution for a planet and the "R" is the length of its semimajor axis. "1" and "2" stands for planet 1 and 2. The periods for the planets are the same time units and lengths for the semimajor axis. They are assumed to also have the same distance units. The period of the planet to revolve around the sun adds up constantly with the radius of the orbit. That is why Mercury(the innermost planet) only takes 88 days to orbit the sun. However, Pluto(the outermost planet) takes 248 years. Planetary Motion by Johannes Kepler Sir Isaac Newton was born in 1642 and died in 1727. He was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. He also invented calculus in 1666. However, Sir Isaac Newton is most famous for creating the "Law of Gravity" and the "Three Laws of Motion". He discovered that objects in the universe were pulling on each other, naming it gravity. He realized objects that had more mass, had more gravity, and the closer the objects were, the stronger the gravitational pull was. Because of Isaac Newton, we know today that the moon is falling every time because it is pulled by Earth's gravity (that is why the moon orbits the Earth!). Also, he was able to explain why planets orbit the sun because of the sun's gravity. The Three Laws of Motion by Sir Isaac Newton Law #1 "Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it" Law #2 "The relationship between an object's mass (m), its acceleration (a), and the applied force (f) create the formula, f=ma" Law #3 "For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction" The Law of Gravity by Sir Isaac Newton By sitting under an apple tree, Isaac Newton created the law of gravity when the apple fell on him in a downward trajectory. Law of Gravity states "Every point of mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them." Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy in 1564. He was an astronomer, mathematician, and physicist. He is known as the father of modern observational astronomy, modern physics, and modern science. He is also a brilliant inventor that improved on instruments that we used today. Galileo also wrote the law of falling bodies, explaining that all objects fall at the same speed regardless of their weight. He supported Copernicus's model of the heliocentric system, showing
that the Sun is in the center of the universe. Galileo had evidence in heliocentrism by
looking at Jupiter through his telescope. By looking at it, Galileo observed of how Jupiter and its moons were moving. He inferred that if Jupiter and its moons are
moving, so is Earth and the moon. Nicolaus Copernicus was born in 1473 and died
in 1543. He was a Renaissance astronomer who is also the first person to create the heliocentric cosmology. Copernicus is most famous for his heliocentric model, explaining the sun is at the center of universe, not earth. He first had a forty-page outline called "Commentariolus", and later developed into a book called "De revolutionibus orbium coelestium". During his time, it was very diffucult for him to persuade people in believing in heliocentrism because he had no proof. Commentariolus "Little Commentary" by Nicolaus Copernicus This is one of the pages in his
outline,"Commentariolus". The outline is beginning to explain about Copernicus's heliocentric theory and how that the sun was at the center of the universe. The whole outline was never printed until they found a copy in 1880. His seven postulates about his heliocentric theory. 1. Celestrial bodies do not circle around one point.
2. The center of the Earth is the center of the lunar sphere (where the moon orbits the Earth.
3. All planets rotate around the Sun, center of the universe.
4. The distance between Earth and the Sun is an
irrevelant fraction of the Earh and the Sun to the starts, which means that parallax is not observed in the stars.
5. stars are immovable. Daily motion is caused by daily rotation of Earth.
6. Earth moves in a sphere around the Sun, causing the annual migration of the Sun. The Earth has more than one motion.
7. Earth's orbit around the Sun causes the reverse in direction of the motions of the planets. De revolutionibus orbium coelestium "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" by Nicolaus Copernicus This book was based all on "Commentariolus". It was published just before Copernicus's death in 1543. And of course, it talked about the Copernican heliocentrism. He went against Ptolemaic system that said Earth was the center fo the universe. When Copernicus wrote this, it was the starting point of the scientific revolution. Heliocentric System by Nicolaus Copernicus This is the heliocentric model that Copernicus created. These are the four thoeries that explains about his picture. Earth is one of the seven planets in a solar system circling the sun.
Earth has three motions: daily rotation, annual revolution, and annual tilting of its axis.
Retrograde motion of the planets is explained by Earth's movement
Distance from Earth to sun is tiny compared to the distance to the stars. Major Features of Copernican Theory 1. Heavenly motions are uniform, eternal, and circular or compounded of circles.
2. The center of the universe is close to the sun.
3. Around the sun, in order are Mercury, Venus, Earth and the moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and fixed stars.
4. Earth has three motions: daily rotation, annual revolution, and tilting of its axis.
5. Retrograde motion of the planets is explained by the motion of Earth.
6. The distance from Earth to the sun is small compared to the distance to the stars. after Copernicus, another scientist built on his work... another great scientist was born after Galileo... This scientist, after Kepler, was has been
"considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived" and who built on the previous scientists together. The Telescope is a very important instrument that existed during the Scientific Revolution. A telescope is an instrument that helps us look at far things, closer. The earliest working telescope was the refracting telescope in 1608. The inventors of the very first telescope were Hans Lippershey, Zacharias Janssen, and Jacob Metius. Galileo Galilei improved on the design, making a better one and making it his own. He did what no one used the telescope for, looking at it in the sky. Today, there are many types of telescopes, for example, there are x-ray, optical, gamma ray telescopes, and more. This instrument matters because without it, Galileo wouldnt have had evidence that our universe goes in a heliocentric system. Galileo using the telescope to look at the sky. From Galileo's time Today Microscope A microscope is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye. The very fist microscope to be made was the optical microscope. The original inventor is hard to identify, but an early microscope was made in 1590 in Middleburg, Netherlands. Hans Lippershey and Zacharias Janssen were credited but we still do not know who invented it. Giovanni Faber coined the name "microscope" for Galileo's compound microscope in 1625. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (father of microbiology) improved on the microscope. With his microscope, he first observed single-celled organisms, which led to new science Microbiology. Without this invention, we would not have discovered a whole new world of science. 18th Century Microscope Today Antonie van Leeuwenhoek's Microscope Thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature. The three inventors that were credited were Cornelis Drebbel, Robert Fludd, and Galileo Galilei. The thermometer is not a single invention, but a development. Philo of Byzantium and Hero of Alexandria knew of the principle that certain substances, notably air, expand and contract. They described it with a demonstration in which a closed tube, halfway filled with air had a container of water at its ends. The increase and contraction of the air caused the position of the water and air to move along the tube. This device showed hotness and coldness of air with the tube in which water level is controlled by expansion and contraction of the air. These devices were developed by European scientists in 16th and 17th century, particularly Galileo. Though Galileo is said to be the inventor of the thermometer, but he made thermoscopes. The difference between thermoscope thermometer is that the latter has a scale. 19th Century Thermometers Today Thermoscopes (Galilean Thermometer) Barometer A barometer is a scientific instrument used in meterology to measure air pressure. Air pressure can forecast short term changes in weather and used to help find surface troughs. high pressure systems, and frontal boundaries. Although Evangelista Torricelli credited with inventing the barometer in 1643, historical documents suggets Gasparo Berti (Italian mathematican and astronomer) built a water barometer between 1640 and 1643. On July 27, 1630, Giovanni Battista Baliani wrote a letter to Galileo Galilei explaining an experiment he had made in which a siphon failed to work. Galileo responded with an explanation. He proposed that it was the power of a vacuum that held the water up, and at a certain height the amount of water simply became too much and the force could not hold any more, like a cord that can support only so much weight. This was the beginning and the making of the barometer. This instrument is very important because it measures air pressure which can tell us that the weather might change, so we will be prepared for anything. Works Cited Old Barometers A Barometer from the 1890s Alba Jared, Liwanag Ori, Park Kenneth, Shaw John. "Galileo Galilei". March 21, 2012. August 29, 2012. <http://prezi.com/nkl5pwp_8nyo/copy-of-galileo-galilei/>
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