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Mind Map Assignment

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Meshwa Shah

on 16 June 2014

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Transcript of Mind Map Assignment

Climate Change
Mind MaP Assignment
BY: MEshwa Shah

4 main Units:
Climate Change
The study of the substances around us,
what is in the substances?
what do they do?
what they are used for
Physical Property:
A property that
describes the physical
appearance and
composition of a
Colour, Texture, Density, Size,
Solubility, Taste, Melting point,
and Physical State

Chemical Property:
A property that describes
the ability of a substance
to change into a new

Ability to burn
Reaction with Water
Melting Point
Physical State
Physical Change:
A change that
does not produce
a new substance
Chemical Change:
A change
that produces
a new substance
Changes of state
Cutting Wood
Burning Paper
Many Physical changes can be reversed, but ot all (eg, cutting wood)
Most chemical changes cannot be reversed (eg, burning paper), but some ar, eg (when you recharge batteries the enery changes the chemicals back to the way they were in the battery).
This mind map is to serve as a review tool for the final exam. The mind map will contain the 4 main areas
in SNC 2D0: Chemistry, Physics,Biology, and
Climate Change.

Pure Substances
Pure Substances:
Made of only one kind of matter. Pure substances can be
elements or compounds.
A type of pure substance that
cannot be broken down into a
simpler substance
A type of pure substance made from
two or more elements that are
chemically combined together.
A combination of pure substances, unseenable.
There are two types of Mixtures: Homogeneous,
and Heterogeneous.


Homogeneous Mixture:
A mixture that looks like
the same throughout and
separate compounds are not
Chocolate Chip Cookies
Water and Oil
Heterogeneous Mixture

Heterogeneous Mixture:
parts of a
mixture are

Salt in Water
Apple Juice
Ice Tea
Ions, Molecules, and Compounds
Key Terms

Electron Pairs:
Two electrons interacting in unique way allowing them to be close
together (less reactive)
Unpaired Electrons:
Electrons is an unfilled outer shell that are not part of a
pair-more reactive and likely to bond.
A charged particle that
results when an atom
gains or looses one or
more electrons.
Sodium atom wants to lose 1 electron, giving the sodium a +1 charge
Naming Ions

There are two types of ions:
A positivity charge
(atom loses electron)
A negatively charged ion
(atom gains electrons)
This example shows, how Sodium gains a positive charge and Chlorine gains a negative charge because it gained an electron from sodium in order to stay as a full shell.
Making Ionic Compounds from Elements
Ionic Compounds:
Made up of one or more positive metal ions (cations)
and one or more negative non-metal ions (anions)

Ionic Bond:
The simultaneous strong attraction of positive and
negative ions in an ionic compound formed through the
transfer of electrons.
Example of Ionic Bond
This example shows, how sodium gives one electron giving itself a positive charge, and to chlorine giving chlorine a negative charge.
Properties of Ionic Solids

Ionic solids are made of a repeating pattern of ions
Ionic solids are held together by electrostatic forces of attraction in a solid known as crystal lattice.
Conducts electricity and has high melting points, are hard, brittle, and are soluble in water.
Key Terms
A compound that separates into ions in water forming a
solution that conducts electricity.
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

Binary Ionic Compounds:
Ionic compounds composed of only two
different elements.

Most ionic compounds are made of two elements: a
and a
The metal ion name stays the same, change the non-metal ion name to

LiBr= Lithium, Beryll
CaI2= Calcium, Iod
Al2O3= Alluminum, Oxy
Mg3N2= Magnesium, Nitr
Key Terms

More than one
charge written on
the periodic table
Copper has 2 types of ions:



Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
Polyatomic Ion:
An ion composed of more
than one atom that
behaves as a single particle
Carbonate ion is a ternary compound (not a binary compound since it contains more than two elements (Ca, C, and O)
Ternary compounds are named the same way as binary compounds, by writing:
ck the
mel ate
ams for
pper in
Nitrate NO31-
Carbonate CO32-
Chlorine ClO3-1
Sulfure SO42-
Phosphorus PO43-
Forming Molecular Compounds

Molecular Compounds:
(also known as covalent compounds)
are composed of two or more
different non-metals
Properties of Covalent Compounds
Covalent compounds are soft and have varying degrees of solubility in water.
Covalent compounds
conduct electricity
Compared to ionic compounds, covalent compounds have much lower melting points
Covalent Bond:
A bond that results from the sharing of outer electrons
between non-metals
A particle in which atoms are joined by a covalent bond
Diatomic Molecule (Molecular Element):
a molecule consisting of only two
atoms of either the same or
different elements (eg, O2)
Naming Molecular Compounds




SO2= Sulfur
PCl3= Phosphorus
CO2= Carbon
Chemical Reactions

Chemical Change:
Transformation of one substance into a different
substance with different properties
Chemical Reaction:
A process in which substances interact, causing the
formation of a new substance.
"A rearrangement of Atoms"
A chemical on the right side of the equation that gets used
up during a reaction.
A chemical that is produced during a reaction

The arrow stands for "yields" or "reacts to produce"
Word Equation: Iron + Sulfur Iron (II) Sulfide + Energy
State Symbol:
A symbol indicating the physical state of the
chemical at room temperature
Solid (s) Liquid (l) Gas (g) and Aqueous (aq)
Key Notes
Chemical Equations
H2(g) + Cl2(g) 2HCl(g)
Numbers places in front of a formula in a
balanced chemical equation to show how many
units of a substance is involved in the chemical
Numbers placed in small font after an atom to
indicate how many atoms are present within a
particular compound.
Describing Chemical Reactions with Equations
There are 3 forms of chemical equations:
1) Word Equations
2) Skeleton Equations
3) Balanced Chemical Equations

Word Equations
Word Equations:
A way of describing a
chemical reaction
using the names of
the reactants and
Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4 (aq) + Cu(s)
Zinc + Copper (II) Sulfate Zinc Sulfate + Copper
Skeleton Equations
Skeleton Equation:
A way of describing a chemical
reaction using the chemical
formulas of the reactants and
products. It is not a complete
equation since coefficients are not
correct (its not balanced)
Balanced Chemical Equations
Balanced Chemical Equation:
Demonstrates the
law of conservation
of mass- which
requires the same
number of atoms to
appear on both sides of
the equation

2H2 + O2 2H2O
Tips for Balancing Chemical Equation
Remember the diatomic molecules
Balance cods first and element last
Balance and hydrogen and oxygen last
Treat polyatomic ions as a single unit
Neutralization Reactions
The reaction of an acid and a base to form a salt (ionic compound) and





Acid Precipitation:
Any precipitation (rain,hail, snow, fog) with a pH of less than
normal rain (less than pH 5.6)
Natural Acidity:
CO2 in the air dissolves in water forming carbonic acid
Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 is added to lakes in large amounts to neutralize and
acid and raise pH
Liming is a temporary solution:
its expensive and must be repeated ever time since pH
will drop with snow melt in the spring.
Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions
Evidence of Chemical Change:

A precipitate is formed, a new product that is an insoluble acid.
A gas is formed.
Change in color is observed
New odor might be produced

Change in temperature may occur
Light may be produced

Synthesis Reaction
Synthesis Reaction:
A chemical reaction in which two or more
reactants combine to form a new product
In a synthesis reaction, two or more reactants (A and B combine to form a new product AB)

To optimize crop yields, farmers need to supply there crops with fertilize which are made with ammonia (NH3)
This synthesis reaction is known as Haber Process

Decomposition Reactions
Decomposition Reactions:
A chemical reaction is which a
compound breaks down into
two or more products.
General form of decomposition reaction:

The products may be any combination of elements and compounds - but the reactants are compounds.
Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Decomposition reactions usually absorb energy from an external source
One way to make hydrogen gas is electrolysis; a decomposition reaction that breaks down water.
Often involve decomposition reactions
Trinitrotoluene decomposes into 3 gases nitrogen, water, and carbon monoxide with explosive force
Example: Elements formed from decomposition of ionic compounds
Gas Tests
Glowing splint should reignite
Burning splint extinguish
Hear "pop" sound with a burning splint
Combustion and Displacement React
Combustion: The rapid reaction of a substance with
oxygen to produce oxide compounds
and energy

Complete Combustion: Combustion reaction of a
hydrocarbon in the presence
of oxygen. The products are
CO2(g), Water and Energy

CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) + energy
Incomplete Combustion:
Combustion reaction of a
hydrocarbon in the presence
of a limited amount of
oxygen. The products are
CO(g)+CO2(g), soot, water and



Single Displacement Reaction: A chemical reaction in which an
element takes the place of
(displaces) another element in a
A+BC AC+B (where A + B are metals)
A+BC BA+C (where A+C are non-metals)
Double Displacement Reactions: A chemical reaction in which
positive ions of the compounds
change places form two new
AB+CD AD+CB (A+C are cations and B and D are anions)
Precipitate: A solid formed from the reaction of
two solutions
Neutralization Reactions
A neutralization reaction between an acid and a bade is also a double displacement reaction
One atom of sulphur and four atoms of oxygen form the polyatomic
ion called sulphate or SO42-
Acids and Bases

Properties of Acids

Aqueous (dissolving in water) solutions of acids conduct electric current because of the ions present in solution.
Acids generally taste sour and turn litmus paper red
Acids produce H2(g) when reacted with certain metals like Fe and Zn
Acids also react with carbonates
Blue Litmus paper
Electric current

Atomic Number:
The number that appears on the periodic table. Tells you
the number of protons and electrons an atom of an
element has.
Atomic Mass:
Is a measure of an atom of that element. The mass number
is equal to the number of protons and the number of

How to calculate?

Atomic #
# of protons
Mass #
# of protons
# neutrons (round)
# of neutrons
mass #
atomic #
# of protons
# of electrons
Bohr-Rutherford Diagram

= 9
= 9
= 10
Lewis Dot Diagram

Sodium Chloride
Physics is the study of matter, energy, and the interaction between them
Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
Wave: A disturbance that transfers
energy without transferring

Properties of Waves
The highest point in a wave
The lowest point in a wave
Rest Position:
The lowest level of the water when there are no waves
The distance from crest-to-crest
The height of the wave from rest position to the trough
or crest.
The number of wave repetitions (or cycles) per second
(cycles/second or Hz)
Types of Waves
Transverse Wave: A wave that consists of ssilations (wave)
perpendicular (90 degrees) to the direction of energy
Longitudinal Wave: A wave vibrating in the direction of propagation.
Frequency and Wavelength
Frequency and wavelength are inversely related; as frequency increases, wavelength decreases.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum: The range of electromagnetic waves
arranged in the order of wavelength
or frequency.
Visible Light: Electromagnetic waves the human eye can see
6 Types of Electromagnetic spectrum waves
Radio Waves
Longest wavelength, lowest frequency,
carry info around the world,
different combos of amplitude, frequency, wavelength used to communicate in mines, submarines, aircraft
Used for: cell phones, MRI tissues, radio
Shorter wavelength than radio waves = higher frequency + energy, when heating food, they make water particles in food, and then vibrate
used for: communication signals, map of earth/other objects in space
Infrared Waves
Shorter wavelength than microwaves, longer than light waves.
We experience infrared waves as heat
used for: Burglar alarms, motion sensors, night vision goggles
Ultraviolet Rays
More energy than visible light, shorter wavelength, higher frequency,
eg, sun, other stars
Used for: disinfect drinking water, DNA analysis
High energy
Penetrate human tissues, difficulty passing through bone
Used for: scan airport luggage, photograph inside machines
Gamma Rays
High energy radiation penetrate human tissues
Produced by neutron stars and black holes
Used for: sterilize medical equipment, kills cancerous cells, max healthy cells
The Visible Spectrum: The continuous sequence of colours that
make up white light (ROYGBIV); the only
energy that humans can see.
The Wave model of Light
Medium: Any physical substance through which energy can be
Radiation: A method of energy transfer that does not require a
medium, the energy travels at the speed of light
Electromagnetic Radiation: A wave that has both electric and
magnetic parts; it doesn't require
a medium and travels at the speed of light
How a Prism Works
Sir Isacc Newton used a prism to show all the colours in white light
In a vaccum, all light travels at the speed of light
3.0 x 10^8 m/s
In a prism, light slows down:
red light slows down the least
violet light slows down the most
*Because light travels at different speeds in a prism, they are separated into individual colours*

A transparent glass object with flat polished sides
This diagram shows when white light is reflected through the prism, all the colours (ROYGBIV) gets shown on the screen
Producing Visible Light
How is light produced?
Luminous: An object that produces its own light
Eg: The sun
Non-Luminous: An object that does not produce its own light
Eg: A tree
For all light sources, atoms must absorb energy and become excited - when atoms relax they release this energy as light.

Lights from Luminescence
Luminescence: Light produced by a material that has not been heated
Eg: Phosphorescence, Chemiluminescence, Bioluminescence

Ability to store the
energy from a light
source and then emit
it slowly over a long
period of time

Glow in the dark

Light that is
produced by a
biochemical reaction
in a living organism
(no heat produced)


Light that is
produced by a
chemical reaction
with little or no heat
produced "cold light"



The production of
light from friction
as a result of
scratching, crushing,
or rubbing crystals
Types of Light

Light emitted from a very hot object
In a light bulb, electrical energy causes the atoms within the tungsten wire to get very hot and glow
Very efficient 95% energy lost as heat, only 5% energy converted to light.
The emission of visible light as a result of absorption of UV light
A fluorescent bulb is filled with argon and mercury vapor.
Electricity excites the mercury gas which releases UV light; the light excites the phosphor which releases visible light.
Fluorescent lights are 5 times more efficient then incandescent bulbs
Fluorescent lights produce less heat which equals less waste
Unfortunately fluorescent lights contain mercury which are toxic.

Fluorescent light
Incandescent light
Light-Emitting Diode (LED)
Light-emitting diode:
Light produced as a result of a small
amount of electric current flowing
through a semiconductor.
A material that can be made to change
how it conducts electricity.
Unlike a light bulb, LEDs do not have a filament, do not produce heat and is more efficient.
Because of their high efficiency LEDs are replacing incandescent light.
Light and Electric Discharge
Electric Discharge: Process of producing light by passing
an electric current through a gas
Eg: Lightning and neon lights
For neon lights, neon gas is red, helium is yellow, argon is blue and krypton is gray
An electric current is passed through sodium vapor
Neon lights
The Ray Model of Light
Light travels in a straight line (until it hits something)
Light Ray: A line on a diagram representing the direction
and path that light is traveling
Geometric Optics: The use of light rays to determine how
light behaves when it strikes object

Light and Matter

Ray model of light:
Light is represented as straight
lines known as rays which show
the direction that light travels
Ray diagrams are drawings that show the path that light takes (with an arrow) after it leaves its source
The more rays reach your eyes, the brighter the light appears
The Ray Model of Light
Transparent: A material that transmits nearly all
incident light (you can see through it)
Translucent: When a material transmits some
incident light but absorbs or reflects
the rest
Opaque: When a material does not transmit any
incident light, only absorbs and reflects
(you cannot see through it all)
Transparent glass
Translucent glass
Opaque glass
Ray diagrams can be used to predict the location, size, and shape of the shadows of two objects
Shadows occur when as opaque object blocks the direct light from a light source
2 types of shadows:
Umbra: Part of the shadow where all the
light rays are blocked (darkest part
of shadow
Penumbra: The area of partial
shadow (brightest
part of shadow)
Reflecting Light off Surfaces
Regular Reflection
Regular Reflection: Reflection of light
off of a smooth
Reflection off of a flat mirror or water are example of specular reflection
The angles of incidence are identical for these rays; their angles of reflection will also be identical (parallel)

Diffuse Reflection
Diffuse Reflection: Reflection of
light off of an
irregular or dull
Eg: Tin foil, lakes
The angles of incidence are different for these rays; their angles of reflection will also be different (non-parallel) creating scattered rays
Reproduction of an object through the use of an optical device like
a mirror
Any polished surface reflecting an image
The bouncing back of light from a surface
The Terminology of Reflection

Plane Mirror
: A flat mirror
Incident Ray:
A ray of light that travels from a light source towards
a surface
Reflected Ray:
The ray that bounces off the reflective surface
A line that is perpendicular to a surface where a ray of light meets the surface

Angle of Incidence:
The angle between the incident ray and
the normal in a ray diagram
Angle of Reflection:
The angle between the reflected ray and
the normal in a ray diagram

Laws of Reflection
The first law: The incident ray, the reflected ray and the
normal always lie on the same plane
The second law: The angle of reflection is equal to the
angle of incidence

Virtual Images
Virtual image: An image formed by rays that appear to be
coming from a certain position (but are not
actually coming from this position); image
cannot be projected on a screen

Images In Curved Mirrors

Properties of Concave mirrors

Concave (converging) Mirror:
A mirror whose reflecting surface
curves inward
Center of Curvature:
The center of the sphere whose surface
has been used to make the mirror
Principle Axis:
On a concave mirror, the line that passes through
the center of curvature (C) to the midpoint of the

The point where the principle axis meets the mirror
Focal Point (Focus, F):
The point on the principle axis through which
reflected rays converge when the incident rays are
parallel to and near the principle axis
Focal Length:
The distance between the vertex of a mirror and the focal

Ray diagrams and Plane Mirrors
An image has 4 characteristics (SALT)

ize: same size, larger than or smaller than the object
ltitude: Upright or inverted
ocation: Closer than, farther than or the same distance as the
object in the mirror
ype: A real or virtual mirror

beyond C
at C
between C and F
at F
inside F

same size
no clear image




between C and F
at C
beyond C

behind mirror



Properties of Convex Mirrors




behind mirror,

Real Image:

An image that can be seen (or captured) on a screen
as a result of light rays arriving at the same
location to form the image
Solar Cookies:
A device that uses light from the sun as its energy
Convex (diverging) mirror:
A mirror whose reflecting surface
curves outwards (or bulges)

Diverge means to spread a part

Rules for Convex Mirrors

1) A ray parallel to the principal axis is reflected and passes
through F
2) A ray aimed at C is reflected back upon itself
3) A ray aimed at F is reflected parallel to the principal axis
Rules for Concave Mirrors

1) An image in a plane mirror is the same size as the object

2) An image in a plane mirror is the same direction from the
mirror has the same distance from the mirror as the
3) An image in a plane mirror has the same orientation as the object
The Magnification Equation


The measure of how much larger or smaller
a image is compared to itself.

By comparing the size of the image with the size of the object, you are determining the magnification of the lens
If the image is bigger than the object, magnification will have a
sign, if the image is smaller than the object, magnification will have a

Properties of Bases
These compounds release hydroxide ions
when dissolved in water
The compounds can conduct electricity when dissolved in water
Bases taste bitter
Feel slippery
Turn litmus paper blue
Blue Litmus paper
Feel slippery
The pH Scale

Scale of
pH (0-6) are acids
pH (8-14) are bases
pH (7) neutral
pH- power of hydrogen are based on the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution

Logarithmic scale:
values increase or decrease exponentially (by power of 10) as you
move up or down the scale
pH of 4 means 10 times greater hydrogen ion concentration than 5, but
only 1/10 the concentration of a pH of 3
Determining pH

There are many different ways to determine pH and will depend on equipment available, accuracy needed etc.
pH meter:
the most accurate method to determine pH
Acid pH=


Neutral pH=


Basic pH=


Determining pH

pH indicators:
A chemical added in small amounts to
a solution to visually show pH through
color changes
(2) Litmus Paper (red/blue):
Blue litmus paper turns
red in an acidic solution;
red litmus turns blue in
basic solution.
(3) Universal Indicator:
Universal indicator contains several pH
indicators to cover the pH scale from
Naming Acids

Binary Acids:
are acids composed of
two elements- hydrogen
and a non-metal

Steps to naming Binary Acids

1) Write the rest of the non-metal name
2) Add the prefix hydro- to the root name
3) Adding the ending
to the root name
Naming Oxoacids

Composed of hydrogen, oxygen and another



Naming Bases

Bases are ionic compounds composed of a metal ion and a hydroxide ion- use the same rules you would use for naming ionic compounds
1) The first part or cation is the name of
the metal
2) The second part identifies the anion
and is the non-metal. The non-metal
name always ends with


Light travels at:

3 x 10^8 m/s
in a vaccum
2.26 x 10^8 m/s
in water and acrlyic plastic
When light light travels from one medium to another (air-water) the light rays refract/bend
Bending of rays as they pass between a different
medias (at the border)
Different medias slow light down by different amounts; the
more light slows down the more it is refracted
*illusion of apparent depth is caused by refraction*

Speed of light

Describing Refraction

At first the waves are parallel to each other, then they hit the medium and the waves that hit the medium slows down causing the waves to change direction (marching army)
Light travels as a wave and has a front and a direction
Crests of the wave are the wave fronts and are perpendicular to the direction of the light or ray
This image shows how light bends when attracted to different mediums
Speed of light (fake image) but representing how fast light travels

Boundary :
Surface between 2 media

For example:
wagon going from pavement to sand. One wheel
gets stuck in sand, but the other wheel turns
freely causing wagon to change directions
Index Of Refraction
The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a given medium(speed of light is different in every medium, but always less than in a vacuum
= index of refraction
= speed of light in a vacuum
= speed of light in a medium
= angle of incidence
= angle of refraction
Longer IOR = decreases speed of light and bends
Speed of light in NaCl is 1.96 x 10^8 m/s. Calculate "n" for NaCl
V= 1.96x10^8 m/s divide the c by v and you will
C= 3.0x10^8 m/s get n= 1.53
A ray of light passes into a Ruby with an angle of incidence of 50 degrees, and with an angle of refraction of 36 degrees. Find n for Ruby.
n= sin 50 divided by sin 30
n= 1.3
Describing Refraction using Rays
Refracted Ray:
The ray that is bent upon entering a second medium
Angle of Refraction:
The angle between the normal and a refracted ray (r)
Notice how the angle of incidence refraction and reflection are all measured from the normal and not from the air-water boundary

Rules for Refraction

Rule #1

Rule #1:
The incident ray, the
refracted ray, and the
normal all lie on the
same plane
When light travels from a faster medium to a slower medium (or vice versa), refraction happens
Rule #2
Rule #2:
The refracted ray
bends towards the
normal: when light
travels to a slower
The refracted ray bends away from the normal: when light travels to a faster medium
Fast- slow:

towards normal

away from normal

A ray diagram for light passing thorough a block of plastic
Process of separating colours by refraction
Snell's Law

Snell's law uses index of refraction to calculate the angle of s refracted ray.
Index of refraction
(1st medium chart)
angle #1
angle #2
Index of refraction
(medium #2 chart)

When light passes from air to water at an angle of 60 degrees from the normal, what is the angle of refraction?
Air n- 1.0003
Water n2- 1.33
Use equation for Snell's law
(1.0003)(Sin 60 degrees) = (1.33)Sin theta2

theta 2 = 40.5
Total Internal Reflection

Critical Angle:
The angle of incidence that produces an angle of
refraction of 90 degrees
Total Internal Reflection:
A phenomenon where the incident light
is entirely reflected back from the
boundary (no refraction occurs)
Two conditions for TIR to occur:

1) Light must be traveling from a slower medium (plastic) to a
faster medium (air)
2) The angle of incidence is larger than the critical angle so that
no refraction into the second medium occurs
The Critical Angle

Lr continues to increase as Li increases, eventually Lr will be 90 degrees, no light passes into air at this point
Critical angle- Li that an Lrefraction of Lc
Optical Fibre:

Glass core surrounded by a glass covering with a lower index
of refraction
Advantages of Glass Fibre (copper wire):

Signals not affected by electrical storms
Carry more signals over longer distances

Small and lighter


Because a diamond has a high index of refraction it has a low CA
Most light entering a diamond gets reflected back inside the diamond due to TIR
Light can bounce around the inside several times before exiting the top causing a sparkle
Shimmering and Mirrors

Apparent movement of objects in hot air over surfaces
Are caused refraction of light in unevenly heated air
Cooler air is denser than hotter air
No boundary between cold and warm air, light doesn't bend but travels along a curved path
Air always more, refraction changes causes shimmering (up) direction and amount

Bending of light ray passing thru layers of air with extremely different
temperatures (optical effect)
Mirages= larger scale than shimmering
Sand becomes hot and heats air above it, when sunlight reaches hair near the ground, the light is refracted upwards
We assume origin of light as being on ground because we think light always travels in a straight line
Example of a Mirage
Example of Shimmering

A transparent object with at least one curved
side that causes light to reflect
Lens Terminology
Principal Axis:
A perpendicular lie down through the
optical center of the lens
Axis of Symmetry:
A vertical line drawn through the
optical center of the lens
Principal Focus (F and F):
Focal point where the light
comes to a focus or diverges
from a focus
Focal Length (f):
Distance from the axis of symmetry to
the principal focus
Describing Lenses

Converging (convex) lens:
A lens that is thickest in the middle and causes
parallel light rays to come together toward a
common point.
Diverging (concave) lens:
A lens that is thinnest in the middle and causes
parallel light rays to spread away from a common
Converging Lenses
Principal Axis:
A line that passes th the center of the lens normal to the lens
Converging Lens:
Light rays parallel to principal axis intersect at the focal point (F)
Optical Centre:

Point of exact center of lens
Principal Focus:
Point on the principal axis for a lens where the light rays converge
after refraction
Diverging Lenses

Lens that is concave on both sides

Images Formed by Lenses
Emergent Ray:
The ray that leaves a lens after refraction
Imaging Rules for Converging Lenses
1) A ray parallel to the principal axis is refracted through the
principal focus (F)
2) A ray through the secondary principal focus (F) is refracted
parallel to the principal axis
3) A ray through the optical centre (0) (optical centre) passes straight through without being refracted
Imaging Rules for Diverging Lenses
1) A ray parallel to the principal axis is refracted as if it had come through the
principal focus (F)
2) A ray that appears to pass through the secondary principal focus (F) is
refracted parallel to the principal axis
3) A ray through the optical centre (0) passes through without being refracted

The Lens Equation

The thin lens equation relates Focal length (F), the object distance (do) and the image distance (di)

do is always positive
di is positive for real images and negative for virtual images
F is positive for converging lenses, and negative for diverging lenses

A converging lens has a focal length of 17 cm. A candle is located 48 cm from the lens. What type of image is formed and where is it located?

1 divided by di = 0.038 over 1
di= 26.3 cm
The Human Eye
Biology is the study of life an living organisms, that includes their structure, function, growth and distribution.
Plant and Animal Cells


Robert Hooke was the first person to study cells
using a microscope he made himself
The science of using microscopes to view
objects or samples

Cell Theory

1) All living things are made up of one or more cells
2) The cell is the basic organizational unit of life
3) All cells come from pre-existing cells

Microscopes and Human health
Cell: Smallest unit that can perform the functions of
Organelles: Specialized structures within a cell that
perform a variety of tasks
The Cell Theory
Prokaryote: A cell that does not contain a nucleus or
other membrane bound organelles
Eukaryote: Cell that contains a nucleus other
organelles each surrounded by a thin
Bacteria example of Prokaryote
Plants example of Eukaryote
Animal Vs. Plant Cells
Plant and Animal Cells Have:

Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi Body
Mitochondria and Vacuoles
Cell Membrane
Only Plants Have:
Central Vacuole
Cell Wall
Key Terms
Cell Membrane:
Flexible double layered membrane;
supports cell, separated the inside of the
cell from the outside environment and
controls the
flow of materials in and out
of the cell therefore "semi-permeable"
Selectively Permeable:
The cell membrane is
permeable since not all materials
are permitted to come in an out

of the cell
Organelles of Animal and Plant Cells

Movement of molecules in and out of the cell; from
an area of high concentration to an area of lower
The amount of substance (solute) present in a
given volume of solution
All organelles are suspended in the cytoplasm mostly
water (like jelly) chemical rxns take place in
cytoplasm, allows organelles to move around
Nucleus: Control center (brain of the cell) surrounded by a nuclear envelope that has pores to
allow passage of materials
Contains most of the cells DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Vacuoles and Vesides: A single layer membrane enclosing fluid in a sac that stores nutrients,
waste and other substances
Stores materials, removes substances, maintains fluid pressure in cells
Vesides transports substances, animal cells have many small vaculaous; plant cells have one central vacuole.
Mitochondria: The power plant of the cell; where energy is released from glucose to power cell
glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy

Organelles where digestion takes place; small fluid filled organelle that contains
is a
speed up
a chemical reaction
Golgi Apparatus (Body):

Receives proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum; the golgi
modifies, sorts and packages proteins for delivery throughout
the cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER):

A network of membrane covered channels that transport
materials made in the cell

Rough ER:

Makes proteins, looks rough because it is covered with ribosomes
Smooth ER:
Produces fats and oils, does not have ribosomes


Network of fibres that maintain the cells shape

Section of DNA (instructions) that "code for a protein"
Only Plant Cells have:

Cell Wall:

A rigid structure outside of the cell membrane
which supports for the cell. Made of rigid pores
cellulose, provides support


Contains chlorophyll which is green, absorbs light
energy from sun to make glucose through
Carbon dioxide


Differences of Plants and Animals

Plants contain chlorophyll

plants have large central vacuole (animals have many small ones)
Plant cells store energy as starch or oils; animals store energy as glycogen, a carbohydrate of a fat
Animals have specialized compounds (like hemoglobin and cholesterol)


To find total magnification multiply the power of the objective lens by the power of the ocular lens

Determine the total magnification if the
objective lens is 10x and the ocular lens is 10x
Field of View

view you actually see when you look through a microscope
= measured with a ruler on the microscope
count the spaces you see
count the halves as well
1mm = 1000 micrometers

Robert Hooke

The Cell Cycle and Mitosis

As eukaryotic cells grow and divide, they move through distinct stages known as the cell cycle, interphase
(G1, S, G2), mitosis and cytokinesis

There are 4 phases to the cell cycle:

First Growth Phase (G1)

Synthesis Phase (S)

Second Growth Phase (G2)

Mitosis (M)
Found in the nucleus and made of highly condensed DNA
Chromosomes are only visible when the cell divides; when not dividing the DNA is spread throughout the cell as chromatin
At the beginning of the cell division, the chromosomes condense and are copied into two sister chromatids.
Sister Chromatid:
One of two identical strands of DNA that make up the chromosomes
The structure that holds the chromatids together as chromosomes.

Cell Division for Growth
As cells grow, there is less surface area per unit of volume. Every cell faces the
problem of needing enough surface area to service its volume.
When a cell reaches a certain size it must divide to make smaller cells
Particle in a liquid or gas that spread out from an area of high concentration
to areas of low concentration.
Movement of water across a membrane towards an area of low water
Ability to see and distinguish between two objects that are very close together
Electron Microscopes

Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM):
Passes a beam of electrons
through thin slices of material
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM):
Provides information about the
surface of samples
Particles that are dissolved in a liquid
Liquid that dissolves the solute
Solute dissolved in solvent gives a solution
Types of Solutions

The solution has a lower concentration of solutes and a higher concentration of water than inside the cell
(low solute, high water)
Result: Cell swells and bursts open
Only H2O can move
inside or out of the
The solution has a higher concentration of solutions and a lower concentration of water than inside the cell
Water moves from inside the
cell into the solution:
cell shrinks

Concentration of solutes in the solution is equal to the concentration of solutes inside the cell
Water moves equally
in both directions and
the cell remains as the
same size

First Growth Phase (G1):
Produces new proteins and organelles
Synthesis Phase (S):
Makes and entire copy of DNA, along with
proteins that DNA needs
Second Growth Phase (G2):
Cell produces organelles and
structures needed for cell division
Interphase: Synthesis Phase
DNA Replication:
Process by which DNA is copied, creating
sister chromatids joined at the centromere
The Cell Cycle
Mitosis (M Phase):
The stage of the cell cycle where DNA is
the nucleus is divided (PMAT; Prophase
metaphase, anaphase, and telephase
Stage of the cell cycle when the cytoplasm
divides to form two identical cells
First Stage of Mitosis:

First stage of mitosis
where the chormosones
condense and become visible
Stages of Mitosis
2nd Stage of Mitosis:

Longest phase of mitosis
Centrioles reach the poles: chromosome move towards the middle of the cell and align along center of cell
Spindle fibers stretch from centrioles to centromeres of each chromosome
3rd Stage of Mitosis:


Centromeres break apart into daughter chromosomes
Sprindle fibres retract pulling one chromatid to each end of the cell
The cell now has twice the normal amount of chromosomes
4th stage of Mitosis:

Spindle fibres disappear; cytoplasm divided in two
Membranes form around two new daughter nuclei and a nucleous appears in each nucleus
Chromosomes get less coiled and harder to see- mitosis is complete
3rd Stage of Cell Division: Cytokinesis

In animal cells, a specialized ring of proteins around the middle of the cell contracts
Cytokinesis completes cell division forming two identical daughter cells; new cells enter interphase (G1)
Mitosis is the same in plant and animal cells
Cytokinesis is different due to the cell wall; golgi body, produces vesicles that carry material to make new cell walls
The vesicles form a cell plate between new nuclei and connect the old cell wall which divides the cytoplasm in two
Cancer Screening
Cancer Screening:
Checking for cancer even
when there are no
symptoms of cancer
Pap Test:
A test for women that involves
taking a sample of cervical cells to
screen for cervical cancer
PSA Test:
A blood test for men to detect
prostate cancer in men
Cell death as a result of injury of damage (ex. sunburn)
Regulated, controlled death of cells that are no longer useful (programmed cell death) (ex. defense cells are no longed needed once an infection is over)

A group of diseases in which cells grow and divide out of control
resulting from a change in the DNA that controls the cell cycle

Cancer Cells
Tumour: A mass of cells that continue to grow
and divide without function in the body
Benign Tumour: A tumor that does not effect
surrounding tissues (not cancerous)
Malignant Tumour: A tumor that interferes with
the functioning of surrounding
cells; a cancerous tumour
Malignant Tumour
Benign Tumour
Cell Growth Rates and Cancer
Process of cancer cells breaking away from the
original tumour and establishing another tumour
elsewhere in the body (cancer spreading)
Causes of Cancer

A random change in DNA
Most ofter a mutation causes cell deaths; sometimes the cell survives and becomes cancerous
an environmental factor that causes cancer (UV rays, X-Rays, tabacco smoke, etc)
Factor that causes a mutation change to DNA
Example of Carrinogen UV Rays

Groups of cells that function together to
perform a specialized task.
Skin Epithelial:

Thin flat cells that act as a semi-permeable barrier between the inside and outside body
Columnar Epithelial:

Columns of cellos that line small intestine, stomach and glands

Strengthens, supports cells and tissues
Cells surrounded by calcium hardened tissue containing blood vessels
Movement, support, protection
Large tightly packed cells found under skin and around organs
Energy storage and insulation
Red and white blood cells, platelets and plasma
Transports nutrients and O2, attacks bacteria and nutrients

Change their shape by shortening or lengthening
Sketetal Muscle:
Cells line up; looks striated, attached to bone allowing body to move
Smooth Muscle:
Cells are tapered at both ends, found in blood vessels and walls
Cardiac Muscle:
Nuclei appears between cells, branched unevenly striated cells
Types of Tissues

Made of cells called nervous, coordinates body's actions through impulses which travel throughout the body
Nervous Tissue:
Varied in their action: some relay signals from the brain to muscles and glands while others detect info from their environment and trigger responses
Plant Tissues
Meristematic Tissue

Meristematic Tissue
: All tissues are formed from groups of meristematic cells known as meristematic tissue found in the tips of roots and shoots as well as in the stem (cambium layer)
Dermal Tissue System

Epidermal Tissue (epidermis):
Thin layer of cells covering all non-woody surfaces (leaves, stems, and roots) of the plant
Periderm Tissue:
In woody plants, the layer of tissue that produces bark on stems and roots

Tiny openings (pores) on the underside od the leaf that allows water vapour, carbon dioxide and oxygen to enter and exit leaves
Ground Tissue System
Ground tissues are the "filter" between the dermal and the vascular tissues (most of the plant is ground tissue)
Ground tissues make nutrients through photosynthesis, in the roots they store carbohydrates, and in the stems they provide storage and support
Vascular Tissue System

Vascular system transports water, minerals and other substances around the plant
transports water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant
transports sugars made from photosynthesis as well as nutrients and hormones
The skin
largest organ in your body
protects inner cells, acts as a defense against disease, insulates, releases heat, excretes body waste
Made up of two layers
Prevents bacteria and viruses from entering and makes vitamin D, when exposed to the sun

Inner layer; made of connective,nervous, and muscle tissues
Contains blood vessels that dilate when you are hot to release heat, pores that release sweat layers of fat for insulation and nerves that sense pain, pressure, hot and cold
The Lungs

A pair of organs involved in respiration
lungs allow you to breathe in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide
Lungs are made up of connective and epithelial tissues
The Heart

A muscular pump that supplies blood to the whole body
weighs 300g, the size of a fist and beats 3.5 billion times during the average life span
Has 4 chambers: left and right atria and left and right ventricles
Organs of Digestion
The Fate of a Meal

Digestion begins in the mouth where teeth mechanically breakdowns food and galiva lubricates food
Amylase (an enzyme in saliva) chemically breaks down starch
After swallowed, food passes from pharynx into the esophagus (a muscular tube)
The esophagus moves food along using muscular rhythmic constrictions known as peristalsis
The stomach is made of epithelial, connective, nervous and muscle tissues
Food is churned in the stomach and mixed with gastric juices (HCl and the enzyme pepsin that breaks down proteins)
The Small Intestine

Sphincter a bottom of stomach relaxes an stomach contents pass into small intestine
Digestion takes place in duodenum (1st meter of small intestine)
Ducts connect duodenum to pancreas, liver and gall bladder which secrete more digestive enzymes
Millions of interior folds (villi and microvilli) maximize surface area where absorption of nutrients into the blood can occur
In solin, breaks down sugar
Gall Bladder:
Secretes blue (enzymes) green, breaks down fat (lipids)

The Large Intestine

Final organ of the digestive system; composed of colon, rectum, and anus
Larger diameter and shorter length compared to the small intestine
Large intestine absorbs water, vitamins, salts, and eliminates undigested food through the anus as feces
Bacteria is a large intestine that finishes breaking down food and produce nutrients like vitamin K
The Roots

The system in a flowering plant, fern or conifer that anchors the plant, absorbs water and mineral and stores food
Most water and materials obtained by the plant are obtained by root hairs which are fine extensions of dermal cells
A plant's root system can cover a very large area
Has 3 functions: Anchor the plant to the ground, takes up water and minerals from the soil and stores energy and nutrients
Root tips are protected by a layer of epidermal tissue called a root cap
Roots have meristermatic tissue which allows the root to grow as well as a layer of ground tissue and vascular tissue (xylem)
The Leaf
Tissues work together to perform photsynthsis
6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy C6H12O6 + 6O2

Vascular tissues carry water from roots needed for photsynthesis and transports sugars to produce
CO2 enters and O2 and water exit through openings called stomata
Most of the leaf is made of mesophyll tissue (a type of ground tissue); photosynthesis also happens in mesophyll
The Stem

Has two functions:
Physical support and transportation of water, nutrients and sugars
Epidermal tissue provides a protective layer and is covered by a waxy cuticle (water proofing)
Ground tissue provides strength and support
Vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) transports substances
The Flower

Only role of the flower is sexual reproduction
Male organ are called stamens
Anthers produce pollen (male sex cells)
Female organs is the pistil (made up of stigma, style and ovary)
Eggs are located in the ovary
Pollination happens with the help from the wind or animals
The Integumentary System

Interaction with other systems
When your body gets hot, the skin will turn red because blood vessels in the circulatory system dilate so that excess heat can be released into the environment
The Digestive System

Digestive System:
A tube that extends from the mouth to the enus
The process where food that has been broken down passes through the walls of the intestine into the bloodstream (mainly in small intestine)
Respiratory System

Respiratory System:
Organ system made up of the nose, mouth, trachea bronchi, and lungs. Major function is to obtain O2 and release CO2
Provides oxygen for the body and allows CO2 to leave the body
Air enters through the nose, through the pharynx and down the trachea
The trachea splits into two bronchi which delivers air to the lungs
Gas Exchange

Diffusion allows O2 to enter the blood and C2 to leave
A tiny air sac in the lungs surrounded by capillaries where gas exchange takes place between air and blood
Circulatory System
Circulatory System: Organ system that is made up of heart, blood, and blood vessels
Moves nutrients from intestine to the rest of the body
The body regulates body temperature an carries disease fighting white blood cells
Picks up and transports nutrients and O2 to cells and carries away waste form each cell
The Blood

Blood is a type of connective tissue; has 4 components

1) Red blood cells; contain the protein hemoglobin which carries oxygen
2) White blood cells; infection fighting cells that destroy bacteria and viruses
3) Platelets; small cell that help clutting
4) Plasma; protein rich liquid
Blood Vessels
Three types of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries:
Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart (great pressure)
Carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart (low pressure)
A tiny vessel that enabled the exchange of gases, nutrients and waste between the blood and body tissues
Interpendent Organ Systems

In order to cool you down, blood vessels in the skin dilate allowing more blood to come to the surface of the skin releasing heat
This explains why you may look red after running for an extended period of time
Sweat also cools your body temperature allowing water and heat to evaporate from your skin
Integumentary System

Circulatory System

In order to keep a steady supply of O2 to your muscles (and remove CO2), your hear heart beats faster
The lungs allow more air to enter and blood to flow to other organs may be reduced
Sugar stored in the liver is released so that the muscles can use it

Respiratory System
Your rate of breathing increases allowing more O2 in and more CO2 to exit
The heart beats faster and blood circulated faster
More gas exchange happens at the alveoli
Skeletal System
Excersise causes your bones to become stronger
Your body needs calcium to make and repair healthy bones and vitamin D in order to absorb the calcium
Your body makes vitamin D naturally when you are exposed to sunlight
Muscular System
Your muscles need more oxygen when you workout
The blood carries O2 to muscles, and vessels near the skin dilate allowing more blood to be near the outside where is can dump off excess heat
Sweating also helps cool down the body
Nervous System
The nervous system stimulates an increase in heart rate
Nervous signals also travel to blood vessels telling some to dilate (near the skin) and telling others to constrict to reduce blood flow to certain organs
Nervous signals also divert blood flow from organs like the stomach to others such as arms and legs where it it needed the most
Characteristic weather patterns (temperature, wind, velocity) within a region averaged over a long period of time (at least 30 years)
Describing Weather

A layer of gases that surrounds a planet or moon
Atmospheric conditions (wind, temperature, precipitation) in a particular location over a short period of time
Weather is caused by the sun:
Energy from the sun heats the earths atmosphere creating wind.
Four Big Factors that Affect Climate

1) Latitude
2) Elevation
3) Air masses that flow over a region
4) Nearness to a large body of water

The Sun: Source of all Energy

When the number of sunspots is high, the sun emits higher amounts of solar radiation
Climate is warmer at lower latitudes (near the equator) and cooler at higher latitudes near the poles
Regions near the equator are warmer because they receive more direct sunlight (more energy)

A geographical region with an defined range of temperature and precipitation - its climate



lichens, mosses artic fox, polar bears
Earth Absorbs Energy from the Sun

Earth's surface absorbs UV and visible light and reflects lower energy IR light into space
Thermal Energy:
The energy present in the motion of particles of a particular temperature
Absorbing the Sun's energy causes the surface of the Earth to get hotter

Earth's Biosphere and the Atmosphere

Thin layer of Earth that has conditions to support life
Layer of gases surrounding the Earth
Extends 300 km above Earth's surface
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen
Once the Sun's energy reaches the Earth's surface the atmosphere traps the heat like a blanket keeping Earth warm
The Lithosphere

Part of the climate system made up of rock, soil, and minerals in Earth's crust
Absorbs high energy from the sun, converts it to thermal energy and emits it as lower energy (IR)
The Hydrosphere
Includes all water on and around the Earth
Earth is absorbed when water evaporates (cooling effect); energy is released when water vapour condenses (warming effect)
Water also heats up and cools down more slowly than land
Balance of Energy on Earth

Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation:
A form of invisible higher energy radiation
Infrared (IR) Radiation:
A form of invisible lower-energy radiation :
When Radiation Contacts a Particle
1) The radiation may be absorbed causing the particle to gain energy (heat)
2) The radiation may be transmitted through the particle
3) The radiation may be reflected off the particle
Heating the Planet

Electromagnetic Radiation:
Energy that travels as waves
Amount of solar radiation received by a region of Earth's surface
The Greenhouse Effect

Greenhouse Effect:
A natural process where gases absorbs IR radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and radiate it, heating the atmosphere and the Earth
Greenhouse Gas:
A gas (CO2 and CH4) that absorbs IR radiation and prevents the escape of thermal energy
Net Radiation Budget:
Difference between the amount of incoming and outgoing radiation

Earth's Albedo:
Fraction of light that is reflected by the surfce of Earth back into space
The ocean reflects 7% of solar energy; fresh snow can reflect up to 90%- these differences affect average global temperature
Melting ice would decrease albedo and increase global warming
Energy Transfer

Emission of energy as waves
Transfer of energy through direct contact
Movement of particles from one location to another (water or air)
Energy Transfer In the Atmosphere
Movement from air from high pressure area to low pressure
Coriolis Effect:
The deflection of any object from a straight line path by the rotation of the Earth
Global Wind Patterns

Convection Currents:
Circular currents in air and other fluids caused by the rising of warm fluid as cold fluid sinks
Trade Winds:
At the equator air heats up rises (less dense) and flows to the poles; cold air drops down (more dense) and travels to the equator to become heated
Westerly Winds:
Hot air from equator cools, sinks and is pushed westward by Coriolis effect
Easterly Winds:
At poles, sinking cold air is pushed westward
Jet Streams:
Winds that travel long distance at high speeds-carry warm moist air producing precipitation or dry air causing dry weather
Collective mass of water on Earth, in liquid solid and vapor form
Thermal energy is released when water changes from liquid to solid and is absorbed when states are soli to liquid
Energy Transfer In the Oceans

As warm water travels to the poles it gets colder and more salty
Low temperature are saltiness make the water at the poled the most dense ocean water
Thermohaline Circulation:
3D pattern of ocean circulation driven by hear, wind and salinity
Wide Ring:
Wet cool weather (fast growth)
Narrow Ring:
Dry and hot climate (slow growth)
Resulting from human influence
Proxy Record:
Stores of information in tree rings, ice cores and fossils that can be measured to give clues to what the climate was in the past
Greenland Ice Core Project
Particles in the Ice:
Dust, pollen
Physical Properties of the Ice:
Snowflakes, hail, give clues about temperature
Trapped Air Bubbles:
Atmosphere compositions such as amount of greenhouse gases
Ice Composition:
Isotope tells scientists about global temperature when the ice was formed
Sources of Greenhouse gas:
Process that add greenhouse gases to the atmosphere (eg, cars)
Greenhouse Gas sinks:
Processes that absorb greenhouse gases from the atmosphere (eg, trees)
Global Warming:
The observed increase in Earth's average annual temperature
Process by which land dries out until little of no vegetation can survive and the land becomes a dessert
Loss of ice means reduced hunting grounds for animals like polar bears
Thermal Expansion:
Increase in the volume of a substance when it is heated
If polar water was less saline and less dense it wouldn't sink and would no longer drive thermohaline circulation
Economic Systems:
Way of a country produces distributed and consumes good and services
Positive Feedback Loop:
A sequesnce of events that cycles back to one ot the earlier events and increases the outcome
Wildfire destroys forest- trees no longer absorb CO2- temperatures get hotter due to greenhouse gases- leading to more wildfires
Runaway Positive Feedback Loop: Positive feedback loop that seem to speed up which each cycle.
Making something milder or less severe
Mitigation Greenhouse Gas Emission
1) Society must reduce its energy use and find new energy sources other than fossil fuels
2) Greenhouse gases must be trapped or chemically converted into a non-gaseous product and stored permanently
Interactions with all 4 Units
Biology and Climate Change:
As temperature increases many humans can get diseases, and strokes which can damage their internal organs
Weather changes increases chances of flues, and other sicknesses which harms the human body.
Biology and Chemistry:
Specific acids an chemicals which are not suitable to your body which can damage your organs (eg, Carbon monoxide)
Biology and Physics:
Learned about the eye which relates to the human body.
Chemistry and Climate Change:
In these two units we learned about acid rain. carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, green chemistry which directly links back to chemistry
Formation of acid rain which ties directly into balancing reactions within the chemistry unit.
Physics and Climate Change:
Depending on the weather if the eye is exposed to radiation it cause damage to the inner parts of the eye
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