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The Colonial Period (1607-1775)

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Alex Thorpe

on 26 February 2014

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Transcript of The Colonial Period (1607-1775)

The Modern Era:

Schools as Instruments for National Purpose and Social Change
Education in the United States and its Historical Roots
The Early National Period (1775-1820)
The Common School Movement
The Rise of State Support for Public Education (1820-1865)


The Evolution of the American High School
Searching for Equality:
The Education of Cultural Minorities
The Colonial Period (1607-1775)
Jamestown Colony
: first permanent English settlement in North America.
King James of England wanted to establish colonial schools to spread Protestantism in the New World for both spirtiual and political reasons.
Therefore, colonial schools were created to help the conversion.
The schools incorporated the settlers' values and beliefs, which reflected Europe's.
At the time, education was only for wealthy, white males.

Differences in Colonies
Teaching in Colonial Schools

Puritan's Views :
Saw children as savage and primitive
Viewed play as idleness and children's talk to be prattle
Education (and religion) was required to become God-fearing
"Spare the rod, spoil the child"
Commonly used corporal punishment for unacceptable behavior
beating students with switches
forcing them to kneel on hard pebbles

European Influences on American Education
Prominent European philosophers were changing the way people thought about schools, teachers, and children
All ideas came from different places, but had the same central idea: a more humane, child-centered, and practical view of education
Some of the more prominent philosophers include:
John Amos Comentius
questioned the effectiveness of memorization and recitation
emphasized the importance of basing teaching on children's interests and needs
John Locke
emphasized the importance of firsthand experiences in helping children learn about the world
The Legacy of the Colonial Period
the source of inequality in American schools
poor whites, females, and minorities were excluded
William Berkeley, the aristocrat governor of Virginia, supported the exclusion, and in 1671 railed against free public education and access to books
laid the foundation for public support of education and local control of school
the relationship between religion and schools
The Constitution played a major role in shaping the educational system you will teach in today
The Constitution removes formal religion from the schools and establishes state responsibility in education
Our country's founders concluded that no religion should be placed above others
this led to the "establishment clause" of the First Amendment
this spread to the principle widely known,
separation of church and state
Controversies arrived such as:
Should prayer be allowed in schools?
Should federal money be used to provide instruction in religious schools?
What role should religion play in character education?
Discussing religious topics with your students is okay if it relates to the content or a child brings it up
Otherwise, you would be violating the principle of seperation of church and state
The Constitution Shapes Education
The Tenth Amendment came about which said that areas not explicitly assigned to the federal government would be the responsibility of eah state
The amendment implicitly removed the federal government from a central role in running and operating schools
it passed this responsibility on to the individual states
This helps us understand why standards, accountability, and the high-stakes tests, so common in today's education, currently originate at the state level
To support states' efforts, Congress passed the Land Ordinance of 1785
Another question raised was: Who should be responsible for organizing and managing education in our new country?

How the Early National Period Shaped Education Today
the principal of church and state was established
legislators removed control of education from the federal government and gave it to the states
in passing the Land Ordinance of 1785, the federal government established a role for itself in public education
Federal government does play an important role in education: public schools receive federal funding and must adhere to federal laws, and the federal government continues to use our schools to achieve national goals
Sputnik
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001

Religion influenced curriculum and instruction:
focuses on the four R's: reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion
emphasis was put on memorization and recitation
Students would sit quietly for long periods of time
No students were to ask questions or express their opinions
There was no professional preparation for teachers
No textbooks or other curriculum materials to support your efforts
Most teachers were men waiting to be accepted into ministry
Most teachers were unappreciated and underpaid

At the time, Congress did not have power to directly tax American citizens, so the Land Ordinance was designed to raise money by selling land in the territories west of the original colonies acquired from Britain at the end of the Revolutionary War
The ordinance divided land into townships consisting of 36 one-square-mile sections, with the income from one section reserved for support of public education
Although not directly involved in governing and operating schools, the federal government provided support for schools and education
The lines of responsibility between state and federal governments were already being blurred

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
viewed children as innately good and argued that teachers should provide children with opportunities for exploration and experimentation
Johann Pestalozzi
criticized authoritarian educational practices that stifled students' playfulness and natural curiosity
recommended that teachers use concrete experiences to help children learn

Old Deluder Satan Act:
Also known as the Massachusetts Act of 1647
Arose from the grim education landscapes
Designed to produce citizens who understood the Bible and could thwart Satan's trickery
Required every town of 50 or more households to hire a teacher for reading and writing
Gave birth to the idea that public education could contribute to the greater good of our country
Provided the legal foundation for the public support of education, which is a cornerstone of schooling in our country
Differences in Colonies
The Southern Colonies:
Included: Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia
linked to the land and revolved around agriculture
African slaves and indentured servants worked land owned by wealthy landlords
Poor white settlers worked small farms on the margin
No public schools existed
Formal education was a luxury for the wealthy
Private tutors often lived on plantations or a tutor taught several families
In bigger cities, such as Charleston and Williamsburg, private and boarding schools were sponsored by the Church of England
The Middle Colonies:
Included: New York, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania
More diverse than the southern colonies
Dutch in New York, Swedes in Delaware, and Germans in Pennsylvania
A number of religious groups: Dutch Reformist, Quaker, Lutheran, Baptist, Roman Catholic, and Jewish
Several religious groups caused conflicts to create schools that satisfied all
In response, families created parochial schools that included religion in addition to the three R's
Students learned in their native languages, and local religious beliefs
An integral part of German schools was Lutheran religion
The New England Colonies:
Included: Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire
Culturally and religiously homogeneous
Made schools easier to achieve
Industry and commerce encouraged the clustering of people into towns
Allowed formation of common schools
For example, for Puritans, followers of John Calvin, religion played a huge role in people's lives
Came to America because of conflicts with the Church of England believing they had come too liberal and tolerant of "immoral practices"
Believed humans were inherently evil
Advocated a "purity" of worship and doctrine and education was viewed as the vehicle for helping people follow God's commandments and resist the devil's temptations
By learning to read and write, people gained access to God's word through the Bible
Education was important because it made people more righteous, industrious, resourceful, and thrifty
Debate Question Ideas for the Colonial/National Periods
Should prayer be allowed in schools?
What role should religion play in character education?
Should federal money be used to provide instruction in religious schools?
Who should be responsible for organizing and managing education in our new country?
The Historians described the period from 1820 to 1865 as the ______ of the________________.
Two important factors contributed to this movement.
First, _____________, the popular war hero, was elected president.
Second, ________________ provided opportunities for those without land to start over by pulling up stakes and heading west.
After these contributions the land area doubled between ____ and ____. Population increased from __ to __ million.
Making Eduction Available to All
In the common school period, "Public" schools often charged partial tuition so that the _________ could attend.
In 1820, changes started to occur that marked the beginning of the ______ ______ _______, a historic attempt to make education available to all children of the United States.
The Contributions of Horace Mann
______ ____, a lawyer who turned into an educator, was a key figure in the common school movement.
Expansion of the Common School Movement
By 1865, __% of American children were enrolled in public school and 28 of 35 states had established state boards of education.
In 1906, ______ students entered first grade in Tennessee, 10,000 remained by the eighth grade and only ____ graduated from high school.
Teaching in the Common School Era
The work load would have been heavy, the only thing you would have taught was _______ and ____.
Teaching in the _____ schools was tough for two reasons.
If you had worked at one of these schools you would have been expected to _____ ______, ____ _____, and ____ _____
Improving Education
There was the creation of ______ _______ which were 2-year institutions developed to prepare prospective elementary teachers.
Before normal schools, the typical teacher was____.
Teachers had no training in education so they used _________ methods like memorization and recitation.
The Legacy of the Common School Movement

Two ___________ __________in education today illustrated this debate.
For those that have taken honors classes, driver's training; nutrition and cooking or any other classes like these have had these options because they attended a unique American invention called the __________ high school, a secondary school that attempts to meet

Historical Roots of the Comprehensive High School
In 1635, the ______ _____ _______ school was established.
An ______ was a secondary school that focused on the practical needs of colonial America.
In 1821, Boston established the first ______ _________ _______, a free secondary school designed to meet the needs of boys not planning to attend college.
Redefining the High School
In 1892, educational leaders recognized the problem so they created the ________ ________ ________.
They appointed a group called ___ ________ __ ____ to examine the high school curriculum and make recommendations about standards, programs, and methods.
The NEA appointed a second committee, the Commission on the ___________ __ __________ ___________ to help provide prospective workers with the skills needed for complex jobs.
After including the basic skills to the curriculum, the commission proposed the idea of ________ high schools with different tracks for different students.

Urban Education
More than __% of American high schools had enrollments of 1,000 or more and some urban districts had high schools with more than 5,000 students.
The Challenge of teaching in Large Urban High Schools
Junior High and Middle Schools
Educators created _____ ____ _______ to provide a unique academic curriculum for early adolescents.
Opened in Columbus, Ohio in 1909, the first junior high was for grades _,_, and _.
When continued criticism caused fundamental change they created ______ _______.
Technology and Teaching
In the 1930s, ________ and _______ allowed teachers to show still photographs in classes.
In the 1940s, _______ _________ presented information to classes until recent years.
In the 1950s, __________ and ________-_____ instruction focused on forming behavioral objectives, breaking instructional content into small units, and revealing correct responses immediately and frequently.
From the 1950s-1970s _________ __________, the VCR and VHS tapes were used.
In 1967, ____-____ __________ were introduced by Texas instruments.
The 2000s marked the use of _______ ______ in classrooms and the use of _____ ______ and ________.

Debate Questions for the Common School Movement and the Evolution of the American High School
Pick one to discuss
What constitutes well-qualified teacher?
Compare or contrast the differences between urban high schools and suburban high schools.
The
Modern Era
is characterized by an increased national emphasis on education which people now view as the key to both
individual success
and the
progress of the nation
.

The Cold War and Education –The Russian launching of the satellite
Sputnik
in 1957 was key.

National Science Foundation- Founded in 1950, the purpose of NSF was to improve science education. (1957- Government authorized 5x increase of funding.)

National Defense Education Act-(NDEA- 1958) Designed to enhance
national security
by improving instruction in
math, science,
and
foreign languages
.

The
Declaration of Independence
-An excerpt… WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created
equal
, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain
unalienable Rights
, that among these are Life,
Liberty
, and the Pursuit of Happiness… drafted by Thomas Jefferson June11-June 28, 1776.
Rights
• Freedom to express yourself.
• Freedom to worship as you wish.
• Right to a prompt, fair trial by jury.
• Right to vote in elections for public officials.
• Right to apply for federal employment requiring U.S. citizenship.
• Right to run for elected office.
• Freedom to pursue “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”

Responsibilities
• Support and defend the Constitution.
• Stay informed of the issues affecting your community.
• Participate in the democratic process.
• Respect and obey federal, state, and local laws.
• Respect the rights, beliefs, and opinions of others.
• Participate in your local community.
• Pay income and other taxes honestly, and on time, to federal, state, and local authorities.
• Serve on a jury when called upon.
• Defend the country if the need should

Education of Native Americans-

Assimilation
: is the process of socializing people to adopt the dominant society’s social norms and patterns of behavior.

Education of African Americans-

Civil War (1861-1865) Ended slavery in the U.S.

The policy of
separate but equal
formalized the segregation of African Americans in education, transportation, housing, and other aspects of daily living.

Education of Hispanics-

Hispanic
is a label that refers to a diverse group of people who speak Spanish and are of Latin American or Caribbean heritage: Mexican Americans in the South-west, Puerto Rican Americans in the Northeast, and Cuban Americans in Florida are included in this group.

Latino
(
Latina
, female) is a common label used in the Southwest.

Chicano
(
Chicana
, female) refers to Hispanics of Mexican American Heritage.

Education of Asian Americans

"The Model Minority"
The War on Poverty and the Great Society-
In the 1964 State of the Union address, President Lyndon Johnson said “this administration today, here and now declares unconditional war on poverty in America.”
War on Poverty- a general term for
federal programs
designed to eradicate poverty. Increased Federal programs include:

 Increased
federal

funding
for k-12 education.
 Development of the Job Corps.
 The creation of the
Department of Education
in 1979.
 The creation of
National Compensatory education programs
.

Title 1
-Improving the Academic Achievement of the
Disadvantaged
. Title 1 is a federal compensatory education program that funds supplemental education services for low-income students in elementary and secondary schools.

Head Start
, established 1965, is a federal compensatory program designed to help 3-5 year old disadvantaged children enter school ready to learn. Head Start has
two major goals
:

1. To stimulate the
academic achievement
and development of low-income preschoolers
2. To educate and
involve parents in the education
of their children.


Schools in a worldwide economic battle
~Global
Competition~

The Federal Government’s Role in Pursuing Equality-


The Civil Rights Movement

Supreme Court overturned separate but equal policy with
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)
.

De jure segregation
- results from laws, such as the separate but equal policy. Brown vs. Board of Education put a legal end to dejure segregation.
De facto segregation
- results from individual decisions such as where to live and which friends to have.
Equity for Women

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972
: No person in the United States shall, on the basis of
sex
, be excluded from participation in, be denied benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.


From "Singin' in the storm" album of Shirley Verrett, 1966. A beautiful and brave attempt for an African American OPERA singer at that time.Throughout her long and distinguished career, Shirley Verrett (1931-2010) has been acclaimed for her exceptional gifts as a singing actress, and has won special praise for her unique and varied repertoire.
Debate Questions for Searching for Equality in
The Modern Era-
1. After reviewing the excerpt from the Declaration of Independence, how does "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" fit with the equality issues facing the U.S.?

2. After reviewing rights and responsibilities of being a U.S. citizen, what do you believe your role as an educator should be?

3. As an educator, how can your personal opinions/convictions influence students?
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