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IGCSE- 3.1 - DEVELOPMENT
Transcript of IGCSE- 3.1 - DEVELOPMENT
CONTRASTS IN DEVELOPMENT
Factors Influencing Development
IGCSE- 3.1 - DEVELOPMENT
• Use a variety of indicators to assess the level of development of a country
• Identify and explain inequalities between and within countries
• Classify production into different sectors and give illustrations of each
Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors
• Describe and explain how the proportions employed in each sector vary according to the level of development
Use of indicators of development and employment structure to compare countries at different levels of economic development and over time
• Describe and explain the process of globalisation, and consider its impacts
The role of technology and transnational corporations in globalisation along with economic factors which give rise to globalisation
Impacts at a local, national and global scale
You should be able to:
There are many different ways of describing these countries. Developing countries used to be known as the "Third World" and commonly are called
LEDC's (Less Economically Developed Countries)
. Developed countries used to be called the "First World" or
MEDC's (More Economically Developed Countries)
However another way of describing them is to divide them up as
(the developed countries) and
(the developing countries).
however does not always give an accurate picture of how developed a country is.
Other indicators of development can be used to identify social,economic and environmental differences between countries that will affect their standard of living.
The most common indicator of development is to look at the wealth of a country, and compare it to others. This is done by calculating the
Gross National Product (GNP) of a country
The GNP is calculated by dividing the total value of goods and services produced in the country by its population. I
t is always calculated in US dollars
so that you can easily compare countries.
is a measure of a country's wealth and how it is generated (for example agriculture is considered less economically advanced than banking).
measures the access the population has to
, leisure and
- as well as
Computers in Schools
High Tech Industry
Good Health Care
What is "developed"?!
the factors (stuff!) that "indicate" what development is!
GDP isn't a good enough indicator alone!
There is no single way to calculate the level of development because of the variety of economies, cultures and peoples.
Geographers use a series of development indicators to compare the development of one region against another.
Do the population have access to medical care?
What level of healthcare is available - basic or advanced?
Is it free?
What type of industry dominates?
LEDCs focus on primary industries, such as farming, fishing and mining.
MEDCs focus on secondary industries, such as manufacturing.
The most advanced countries tend to focus more on tertiary or service industries, such as banking and information technology.
Do the population have access to education?
Is it free?
What level of education is available
(ie primary, secondary or further/higher education)?
To assess the economic development of a country, geographers use economic indicators including:
• Gross Domestic Product (GDP) .
• Gross National Product (GNP)
• GNP per capita
• Economic growth
• Inequality of wealth
• Economic structure
Human Development Indicators
Development often takes place in an uneven way.
A country may have a very high GDP - derived, for example, from the exploitation of rich oil reserves - while segments of the population live in poverty and lack access to basic education, health and decent housing.
Hence the importance of
human development indicators
, measuring the non-economic aspects of a country's development.
Human development indicators include:
• Life expectancy
• Infant mortality rate
• Access to basic services .
• Access to healthcare
• Risk of disease
• Access to education
• Literacy rate
• Access to technology
• Male/female equality
• Government spending priorities
We know HOW countries can be considered different.....
Primary Industry/Tertiary Industry
Crop loss/starvation/food shortage/unrest
Minerals/ Fossil Fuels / Natural Beauty
Tied to **exploitation**
Forced to focus elsewhere if low resources.
15 Countries in Africa are landlocked!
Trade is restricted
Access to/of technology.
eg: Fibre optic cables.
Income diverted to pay for repair/development
Helped supply cheap resources through the oppression of local inhabitants
No attention was paid to local cultural/tribal tension
Affluent /elite groups have money funneled to them.
Focus on military
World Trade is unfair.
LEDCs compete with each other- lower price wins.
More money made from processing goods- MEDCs Process more
eg: Africa gets 5% foreign investment, but 15% population but Europe gets 45% and has 7% pop.
LEDCs are in debt to MEDCs
Poorer countries cant invest in
Over time, the percentage of the population of a country working in the four different sectors of industry will change
as the country develops.
all of which produce raw materials that can be processed in to a finished product.
People working in these industries are described as being in the primary sector.
...classified as those which produce the raw materials for industry.
bread making and
People working in these industries are described as being in the secondary sector.
The manufacturing and assembly industries. They take raw materials and manufacture finished products from them.
The providing of services to individuals and other businesses
doctors, lawyers, estate agents, travel agents.
accountants and policemen
the development of new computer components
and research into GM crops.
This is the newest, most hi-tech sector of industry.
They are the research and development industries.
You can use the percentage of people working in each sector to help describe how developed a country is
By looking back through history you can also see how one single country has developed by looking at the changes in their employment structure.
Inequalities BETWEEN...and WITHIN countries
What are the reasons for this inequality?
Brazil has very different levels of development. The core area, in the south of the country:
contains the cities
of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte
good access to ports
has benefited from
in the area
The periphery is in the north and north east of the country, areas which:
long way from the core
suffer from a
wet and tropical climate
in the north, and
in the north east
difficult for access to ports
and trading links
REGIONAL INEQUALITY IN BRAZIL
REGIONAL INEQUALITY IN SOUTH AFRICA
Previous Homeland areas vs. City areas have massive disparities.
Bantu Education Act
Land Areas Act
Natives (Urban Areas) Act
All acts restrict development of a group located in a specific area!
How does development Change over time? ?
Describe each sector
What did you think about Nike before?
What do you think now?
Do you own any Nike products?
What benefits were there of having Nike in Indonesia?
What drawbacks were there of having Nike in Indonesia?
FOOD FOR THOUGHT.....
But what IS globalisation....
This is what the statistics of inequality look like:
TNCs and Globalisation
Material elements, such as wealth and nutrition, are described as the
standard of living.
Health and leisure are often referred to as
quality of life
For each of the images below, identify whether it is an economic or human development indicator.
What has caused Globalisation:
Decreased trade and travel barriers/regulations
Increase in international co-operation -end of the "cold war"
Increase in transport technology
Ease of transport
cost of transport
Development of cheap/easy/accessible communication (to share ideas)
Internet, mobile phones, PCs
QUIZLET Links here:
EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURE IN LEDCS
High primary (Usually farming)
Little Mechanisation on farms
In early stages of economic/demographic transition
Informal service sector in cities quite strong
EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURE IN NICS
Strong manufacturing sector
Many TNCs move to NICs to take advantage of labour and land.
eg: In the 90s "Made in Taiwan" - now "Made in China"
EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURE IN MEDCS
Farming mechanised (so lower primary employment)
automation of manufacturing or transfer of this sector to NICS.
very strong tertiary sector with large numbers employed in
health, education and tourism
Growth of obs in the knowledge economy based on processing knowledge and information
Advantages of TNCs locating in a country
for local people
with jobs then
spend money in their local economy
at local businesses and therefore there is a positive
as extra money gets added to the local economy.
TNCs will pay local and government taxes
and therefore increase the government budget.
Jobs at a TNC will be in the formal economy, so hopefully better regulated in terms of safety, pay, etc.
Improves workers skill
and education levels
into the country
Infrastructure like roads and ports
and benefit the whole economy
Diversifies the economy
, might move away from the reliance on one industry like farming or tourism
The country receives
for attracting TNCs and investment into the country
Disadvantages of TNCs locating in a country
Many of the
best paid managerial jobs go to foreigners
Local workers often do
and often workers suffer exploitation (long shifts, no breaks, etc.)
There will be some
as profits from TNCs go back to their home country
manufacturing processes are becoming more mechanised
so less workers are needed in factories.
One of the attractions of LEDCs is cheap labour, but as a country develops labour costs increase and
TNCs may move
to cheaper locations.
Products produced by TNCs maybe
too expensive for locals to buy.
TNCs may also
use local raw materials
The increased demand created by TNCs may cause
If the government is
building new roads
or a port for a TNC it probably means that they
can't spend as much money on education or healthcare
TNC decision makers are often foreign so
policies of TNCs may not always benefit local people
Answer / Explanation of the Clark Model
To begin with the primary sector is the most important because most societies start of as being subsistence based. There maybe some basic secondary to construct homes and farming equipment. There is no tertiary because people are relatively uneducated and have no free time or disposable income.
Overtime countries begin to specialise in certain agricultural products and use more machines. Therefore less people are needed to work on the land, but people are needed to build equipment. People and countries start to generate income which can be invested in factories and infrastructure therefore expanding the importance of the secondary sector. The wealthy begin to have more leisure time and greater disposable income so may demand a greater number of services.
As a country becomes wealthy the cost of labour become too much to make the secondary sector profitable so factories close and the importance declines (deindustrialisation). However, people are now more educated with greater income and free time to enjoy shopping, sport, etc. which expands the tertiary sector. The high levels of education and the demand for new innovative products also allows the quaternary sector to grow in importance.