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Asexual Reproduction vs. Sexual Reproduction
Transcript of Asexual Reproduction vs. Sexual Reproduction
Asexual reproduction is the process in which a single parent produces an identical offspring. The offspring collects the SAME genetic material of the parent.
Sexual reproduction is the process when both parents combine different genetic material in creating a new organism (one gene per trait)
Advantages and Disadvantages
Asexual reproduction is common in Hydras, and specific insects (ants, bees, aphids and wasps)
Hydras use the process of budding to complete asexual reproduction
Ants, bees, aphids and wasps use parthenogenesis to complete asexual reproduction
During the process of budding a bump will appear on the hydra and it will continue to grow on the hydra. Once the new hydra is grown and nourished it will detached from the original hydra and continue on its own.
Ants, Bees, Aphids and Wasps Reproduction
These insects reproduce by parthenogenesis. This is the process when an organism is produced from unfertilized eggs. The eggs are activated by various chemicals instead of egg and sperm to reproduce these insects.
Cannot respond to change in environment
Mediocre genes may be costly to an entire species
Same weaknesses and strengths
Faster/ More efficient
Less costly to health (energy, fighting)
Higher population growth
Lower risk of adverse combinations
If well adapted to environment, it will continue to thrive!
Advantages and Disadvantages
Costly in health and resources
More energy and time used
Variation (critical to evolution)
Able to respond to change
No guarantees of specific genes
Slower/Less population growth
Limit the deleterious genes and encourage the beneficial genes
Able to produce variable offspring that could benefit survival
the splitting (nuclear division) of a cell resulting in two identical offspring with same chromosome number as the parent
Mitosis is used in growth, replacement and reproduction. Stages of interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase are all experienced through this division but unlike meiosis the genes do not change. The genetic makeup is duplicated in interphase but then, stays completely unaltered throughout all stages.
But how does this relate to asexual reproduction?
Asexual reproduction uses this process to reproduce identical offspring. Through mitosis identical genetic makeup is brought down to offspring such as eye color. Without this process asexual production would be nearly impossible due to the requirement of the passing down of
a cell division resulting in 4 different daughter cells with only half the number of chromosomes as the original (parent)
Sexual reproduction occurs from the combination of both parents resulting in genetically different organisms. This occurs from meiosis. Sexual reproduction includes
of an egg and a sperm yet, with fertilization the chromosome number doubles from both the egg and the sperm. Meiosis is pivotal in this part because it
reduces the number from diploid to haploid
then to nuclear division, resulting in 4 daughter cells. With meiosis there are factors such as crossing over (prophase 1) that contribute to the
of sexual reproduction.
Genetic information is swapped, consequently
creating the variation
we see today. Overall, this process contributes to sexual reproduction in ways such as the sharing on genes to creating
variation and the fertilization of gametes.
The distribution of alleles by mitosis to the daughter cells are done simple by duplication of genes and therefore specific alleles. If the parent cell contains a certain allele such as brown hair (BB) the offspring will contain the same allele due to mitosis. Mitosis does not alter the original genetic makeup therefore resulting in identical alleles. The alleles are brought down during the stages on mitosis all the way to telophase, hence the daughter cell receives the same allele.
Meiosis contributes alleles to gametes differently the mitosis to daughter cells. The cell has a diploid amount of chromosomes and these chromosomes are reduced to haploid when there is only one gene per trait. When it is a haploid there is only one allele ex.) short (s) so when the gametes meet, they will share alleles such as short short (ss) or tall short (Ss). As crossing over occurs there is a greater mix in allele combination since certain gene traits are being shared. Therefore, contributing to the alleles of the gamete and offspring.
Self Fertilization vs. Out Breeding
The effects of self-fertilization will reduce the amount of variation of the species and could also accumulate hurtful mutations. This kind of fertilization may lead to an evolutionary dead end because the amount of variation will continue to decline and cause a whole species to suffer.
The effects of out breeding will raise the amount of variation due the different combinations of various organisms. Also, it allows evolution to continue to create different combinations which could continue to benefit a species.