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The Aztecs

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by

Kyle Johnson

on 3 December 2013

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Transcript of The Aztecs

The Aztecs
Sociology
History
Anthropology
The Aztec Civilization dominated the Central Valley of Mexico ("The Aztecs / Mexicas"). This enormous powerful empire stretched for more than
80,000 square miles
from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf Coast.
It can be found in present-day southern and central Mexico, from Central Mexico to present-day Republic of Guatemala ("History of Mexico - The Aztec Empire")
Archaeology
Tenochtitlan founded in Lake Texcoco
1502
1325
Montezuma crowned emperor
1519
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/Aztec_calendar.svg
Cortez lands in Mexico
1520
Montezuma dies
http://www.reformation.org/aztec-empire-map.jpg
Aztec culture was a rich combination of the various cultures of the people that made up the empire.
Ancient Aztec religion was a complex interaction of gods, dates, directions and colors.
According to ancient Aztec religion, it took the gods 5 tries to create the world.
The ancient Aztec religion was highly focused on keeping nature in balance. One false step could lead to natural disaster. (ex: The sun could stop moving)
Every 52 years, the people were terrified that the world would end.
People all over the empire would destroy their furniture and precious belongings and go into mourning.
When the constellation of the Pleiades appeared, the people would be assured that they were safe for another 52 years.
("Ancient Aztec Religion")
Religion
Social Classes
The Aztec emperor didn't rule every city state directly.

The control didn't stretch into every corner of life (conquered lands were forced to pay tribute, but were left a certain amount of freedom).

Local governments would remain in place, but would be forced to pay varying amounts of tribute to the Triple Alliance (with most of the tribute going to Tenochtitlan).

("Ancient Aztec Government")
Government
Traditions still practiced.
Keeping the culture alive.
Aztecs always wanted to make their sacrificial temples better and better, so they decided not to destroy it, but build over it. Each layer is grander and more extravagant than the previous one.
Their temples looked like Egyptian pyramids with a flat top.
Aztecs used adobe for their buildings.
The city of Teotihuacan can still be seen today and considered one of the world's greatest archaeological sites ("Aztec Architecture")
Architecture
Science and Technology
Even though Aztec society became very urban, their economy was based mainly on
agriculture and trade
, which was provided by the citizens in outlying lands.
Economy
Aztec food was a rich combination of many foods that we take for granted today:
Maize
(also called corn or mealies) was the staple grain of the Aztec empire.
Beans, squash, chillies, tomatoes, limes, chashews, potatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts, and chocolate
Domesticated:
bees for honey
turkeys for meat and eggs
dogs
ducks
They also hunted and fished and used animals such as deer, rabbits, iguana, fish and shrimp for food. Even insects, such as grasshoppers and were worms were harvested.
Food
Important leaders
Record Keeping
"Ancient Aztec Government." Ancient Aztec Government. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://www.aztec-history.com/ancient-aztec-government.html>.
"Ancient Scripts: Aztec." Ancient Scripts: Aztec. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://www.ancientscripts.com/aztec.html>.
"Aztec." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 July 2012. Web. 31 July 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aztec>.
"Aztec Architecture." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://library.thinkquest.org/10098/aztec.htm>.
"Aztec Culture." Aztec Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://www.aztec-history.com/aztec-culture.html>.
"Aztec Important Events." Aztec Important Events. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://www.nettlesworth.durham.sch.uk/time/aevents.html>.
"Aztec Rulers." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://library.thinkquest.org/27981/aztecrulers.html>.
"The Aztecs/Mexicas." The Aztecs/Mexicas. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://indians.org/welker/aztec.htm>.
"Explorers of Mexico - EnchantedLearning.com." Explorers of Mexico - EnchantedLearning.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/explorers/mexico.shtml>.
"History of Mexico - The Aztec Empire." History of Mexico - The Aztec Empire. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 July 2012. <http://www.houstonculture.org/mexico/aztecs.html>.
"Aztec Technology." Aztec Technology. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 July 2012. <http://www.aztec-indians.com/aztec-technology.html>.
Florido, Camino. "Camino Florido - the Aztecs Doing Today." Camino Florido - the Aztecs Doing Today. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 July 2012. <http://caminoflorido.com/antiguo-mexico//index.php/Articles/the-Aztecs-doing-today.html>.
Works Cited
Acamapichtli: guided early construction of Tenochtitlan
Itzcoatl: brought an end to the Tepanec Domination in Mexico. Founded the Triple Alliance.
There were two main social classes in Aztec culture:
nobility or
pilli
(Would hold high positions in government or in the military)
common people or
macehualli



Moctezuma Ilhuicamina: developed Aztec military structure. expanded empire.
Ahuitzotl: Rebuilt empire after Tizoc destroyed it and the Great Temple.
Moctezuma Xocoyotzin: Last great ruler. Lead successful military campaigns. Died during the Spanish Conquest.
("Aztec Rulers")
Most documented American civilization until European contact.
Scholars, Friars, and Soldiers kept records.
("The Aztecs/Mexicas")
Used the Nahuatl language.
No pre-Columbian book exists due to purposeful destruction of books by Aztecs and Spanish Conquistadors.
All surviving documents contain Spanish notes, Aztec glyphs, and Nahuatl language.
Three primary functions: record calender dates, mathematical calculations, and the names of people and places.
("Aztec")
Hernan Cortez: Sailed from Cuba to the Yucatan Peninsula to look for gold and silver. He killed the Aztec emperor Montezuma and conquered the empire. Claimed all of Mexico for Spain but died soon after returning to Spain. ("Explorers and Conquistadors of Mexico")
Western Explorers.
Bernal Díaz del Castillo: Participated in the third campaign against the Aztecs. He eventually wrote "Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España" which translates to the "The True History of the Conquest of New Spain" which depicts the defeat of the Aztecs. He also explains the culture and traditions.
Government Structure.
("Bernal Díaz del Castillo")
Spaniards conquer Tenochtitlan
1521
Important Dates
("Aztec Events")
A group of families, the calpulli, owned farmland together.
The leader of the calpulli took care of the group.
All the leaders form a council
Each council had an "executive council"
Out of the executive council, a city leader would be chosen.
The city leaders led the empire.
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=aztec+leaders&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&rlz=1T4SKPB_enUS297US298&tbm=isch&tbnid=UPMHh-fasd0AcM:&imgrefurl=http://countrystudies.us/mexico/5.htm&docid=Lii-cu6_lH_rmM&imgurl=http://countrystudies.us/mexico/Aztec-2.jpg&w=170&h=222&ei=w-sWUPKyDofm9ATtu4HACA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=483&vpy=192&dur=871&hovh=177&hovw=136&tx=44&ty=53&sig=103869141733045017358&page=1&tbnh=135&tbnw=100&start=0&ndsp=22&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:121&biw=1280&bih=650
("Ancient Aztec Government")
The Aztec Sun Calendar
http://www.aztec-history.com/images/quetzalcoatl.jpg
Quetzalcoatl, the plumed serpent
Who are they?
The advances demonstrated in Aztec technology are so remarkable that they are still looked upon with reverence today.
Just a few of the Aztec accomplishments:
Development of mathematics
The canoe
The highly specialized Aztec calendar
A large variety of medicines
The wheel (only used in toys)
Near the time they were overcome by Spanish conquistadors, they were experimenting with making tools with copper.
Aztec technology was so advanced that they even made drills, which were made of reed or bone.
("Aztec Technology")
There are no surviving people of 100% Aztec descent. Most native Aztecs either died from the battles between the natives and the invading spaniards, or the small pox the invaders left behind.
http://aztecsociety.yolasite.com/resources/aztec-knife.jpg
Most Mexicans are mestizos; people of mixed indigenous and European descent.
The
market
was where farmers and craftsmen presented their goods to about 60,000 village and city residents a day. Goods were bartered with cacao and
feathers.
("Aztec")
("Aztec Economy")
Dancers are still performing native dances to celebrate events such as the Spring equinox. One of the most famous dances is the Papantla.
http://im.glogster.com/media/5/26/99/30/26993033.jpg
("The Aztecs Doing Today")
http://www.aztec-history.com/images/teotihuacan-today.jpg
Teotihuacan today
("Aztec Food")
http://caminoflorido.com/antiguo-mexico//index.php/Articles/the-Aztecs-doing-today.html
The Nahuatl language is still spoken in the mountainous states of Mexico.
Mexico City was built on the ruins of Tenochtitlan.
http://www.anniesheirloomseeds.com/product_images/f/777/black_aztec__99272_zoom.JPG
http://peopleplanetpolitics.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/bee.gif
Aztec Black Corn
Many of the districts and Landmarks around Mexico City still have their native names.
Mexican food is greatly based on native Aztec/Mesoamerican cuisine.
Aztec descendants are mainly found still in Mexico or the surrounding States.
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Tenochitlan
TEN-O-CHEAT-LAN
Slaves:
Generally well-treated.
Not hereditary, meaning the children of a slave were free
There were ways for a slave to gain freedom, such as purchasing it.
("Aztec Culture")
Full transcript