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animal cloning presentation
Transcript of animal cloning presentation
SCE552-SCIENCE AND SOCIETY
GENETIC ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
ATIQ ANIS BINTI AZIZ
NUR HUZAIMAH BINTI MAT YASSIM
SITI HUZAIMAH BINTI MAT YASSIM
NURHANIS BINTI AZHAR
NORAZIAH BINTI SUKERI
Manipulates DNA to allow individuals genes to be transferred from one organism to another to produce recombinant DNA. It usually involves two organisms from completely different species (Yuyun.T,2013).
WHAT IS GENETICS ENGINEERING????
WHAT IS BIOTECHNOLOGY?????
the technology of applying living organism or their compenants commercially in industries. biotechnology also includes the modification of organisms or biological products intended to improve the quality of human life (Yuyun.T,2013).
WHAT IS RECOMBINANT DNA????
Whereby the donor's DNA fragment and the DNA of the recipient is joined together and the technology used to produce recombinant DNA is know as recombinant DNA technology. the recombinant DNA is transferred into a cell form for gene expression (Yuyun.T,2013).
The term cloning describes a number of different processes that can be used to produce genetically identical copies of a biological entity. The copied material, which has the same genetic makeup as the original, is referred to as a clone. (National Institute of Health,2012)
Definition of clonning:
WHAT IS CLONNING????
DNA CLONING (DNA RECOMBINANT)
Cloning which are used for producing the exact copy of an existing organism are called reproductive cloning (Uppangala.N, 2010)
Produces embroyonic stem cell, cells that in the early animal in embryo differentiate to give rise to all the cell types in the body (Campbell et.al, 2012).
Cloning technique that used to create many copies of DNA fragment. This technique can be used to clone random fragment of DNA, specific sequence of DNA or can be used to clone entire gene sequence (Uppangala.N, 2010).
1.UNDERSTAND WHAT IS GENETIC ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
2.ABLE TO DIFERRENTIATE THE TYPE OF CLONING
3.ABLE TO UNDERSTAND CLONING PROCESS IN EACH TYPES
4.ABLE TO UNDERSTAND ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CLONING
5.ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE CURRENT ISSUES ABOUT CLONING NOWDAYS
NUR IFFA BINTI ZAINAL
REPRODUCTIVE CLONING PROCESS
DNA cloning (DNA recombinant)
DISADVANTAGES IN CLONING..
(1) help to replicate animals that can be used for research purposes by scientists.
(2) Cloning body parts can become a life-saver.(organ transplant)
- by producing more animals that can act as suitable donors.
- vital organs of human body can be cloned and used as back-up in case of an organ failure.
- When a crucial body organ such as kidney or heart fails to perform its normal functions, it can be replaced with a cloned organ substitute.
(3) Protecting Endangered Specie
- the best efforts of conservationists worldwide, some species are nearing extinction
-Dolly represents the first step in protecting endangered wildlife. •
-To protect endangered species. For example, in China, panda cells are being kept on reserve should this species' numbers be threatened by extinction.
(Karen Batra, 2008)
(4) Improving food supply
- provide a means of cultivating plants that are stronger and more resistant to diseases,
-diseases such as foot and mouth disease could be eradicated.
(5) Helping infertile couples
- chance to have a child of their own
- Cloned embryos can be planted into women’s bodies to produce babies.
(6) • Reproductive cloning may enable researchers to make copies of animals with the potential benefits for the fields of medicine and agriculture. (National Institute of Health,2012)-
(1) Inheriting diseases
- inherit the genetic traits of its predecessor
- This includes genetic abnormalities and diseases
- pets that are cloned often do not come out having the same personality and can look different.
(2) High failure rate
- every 1000 tries, only one to 30 clones are made. Or you can look at it as 970 to 999 failures in 1000 tries.
- The enucleated egg and the transferred nucleus may not be compatible
-An egg with a newly transferred nucleus may not begin to divide or develop properly
-Implantation of the embryo into the surrogate mother might fail
-The pregnancy itself might fail
(3) It will only possess about half the life span of the normal animal which has been cloned.
- famous ‘Dolly’ previous mentioned which only lived for 6 years, whereas normal sheep can live up to about 10 years of age, so a great decrease in age.
-Dolly suffered in lung problem.
ISSUE IN CLONING
some scientist said that the regulations restricting the sale of milk and meat from livestock bred cloned animal are unnecessary. (BBC News, 2010)
Food safety authorities say there is still not enough evidence to said that food from cloned animal is completely safe.
As a summary, we can say that cloning activities has their pro and cons.Therefore, we,as society should alert about cloning issue. Besides, we hope that authorities can take serious about this cloning issue.
CLONING MEAT IN EUROPE
Therapeutic Cloning and Stem Cell Research Issue Malaysia
Anonymous. (2008). Science-Animal Cloning. Retrieved from http://animalcloning.wordpress.com/2008/05/17/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-animal-cloning/ [Accessed 07/11/2013
Anonymous. (2013).Cloning Of Cell. Retrieved from http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iii/biotechnology/cell-cloning.php [Accessed 05/11/2013]
Anonymous. (n.d). Therapeutic or Biomedical Cloning. Retrieved from http://www.abpischools.org.uk/res/coresourceimport/resources/poster-series/cloning/clon_di3.cfm [Accessed 06/11/2013]
Anonymous. (2010)Recombinant DNA Technology . Retrieved from http://regentsgenetictechnology.wikispaces.com/Recombinant+DNA+Technology+3-4 [Accessed 05/11/2013]
Batra. K.(2008)Why Clone. Retrieved from http://www.clonesafety.org/cloning/facts/why/ [Accessed 06/11/2013]
Campbell N.A et. Al. (2012). Biology 6th edition Pearson Malaysia Sdn Bhd. Petaling Jaya, Selangor.
Choon Key Chekar. (2010). Public Attitudes and Perceptions Toward Consuming Cloned Meat. Retrieved from http://www.gleube.eu/papers/public-attitudes-and-perception-toward-cloned-meat.htm [Accessed 06/11/2013]
National Institute of Health. (2012). What Is Cloning. Retrieved from http://www.genome.gov/25020028 [Accessed 05/11/2013]
Uppangala.N. (2010). Types of cloning. Retrieved from http://www.biotecharticles.com/Genetics-Article/Biotechnology-and-Types-of-Cloning-77.html [Accessed 06/11/2013]
Definition of IN VITRO FERTILIZATION
: fertilization of an egg in a laboratory dish or test tube; specifically : fertilization by mixing sperm with eggs surgically removed from an ovary followed by uterine implantation of one or more of the resulting fertilized eggs (Mariam Webster)
The 67th Muzakarah (Conference) of the Fatwa Committee of the National Council for Islamic Religious Affairs Malaysia held on 22nd February 2005 has discussed the ruling on therapeutic cloning and stem cell research. The Committee has decided that:
1. Therapeutic cloning for medical treatment, for instance to create certain cells or to replace damaged organ is permissible. The act is permitted provided that the Syarie precautions are considered.
2. Using frozen embryo or extra embryo in vitro fertilization process is permissible for research purpose. However, permission must be granted from the married couple who are under treatment. The research on the embryo must be done before the embryo reach the calaqa stage (blastocyst). (JAKIM,2005)
WHY IVF IS LEGAL IN MALAYSIA OR SIDE OF ISLAM??
Assisted Reproductive Techniques ( ART ) is an area that will generally be able to help couples to have children. Some of the methods that can be found ART in our country is the intra- uterine insemination ( IUI ) , in vitro fertilization ( IVF ) , intra- cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI ) and gamete intra- fallopian transfer ( GIFT ) . (Azrina, n.d)
All the methods mentioned above are allowed as long as it does not violate Islamic law which must use the husband's sperm and placed in her womb . At the same time , the characteristics of safety and hygiene in the process is a key feature to note in order not to impinge on the baby to be born .
HOW ABOUT THERAPEUTIC CLONING??
Therapuetic cloning legal because...
produce embryos but not transfered into the uterus of the mother
main purpose -life saving treatment for human cell taken from embrayos for the purposes of obtaining tissue or organs to treat patients who provide DNA.
This is like a fatwa issued by the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore Fatwa that cloning to produce replacement organs for medical research or replace damaged organs is required .
Although this field is still at an experimental level , but it may be a reality in the future. A person who suffers from heart or kidneys may not have any problems getting parts have heart or kidney damage.
The cells are cell capable of developing into any cell type of the body during early stages of development.The stem cell come from umbilical cord, bone marrow and feotus. In many tissue, these cells provide an essential cellular repair system to damaged tissues cells in need of repair, dividing without boundaries to repair or replanish. Other cells as long as the person or animal is living. when these stem cells start dividing, the new cells are capable to retain itself as a stem cell or to transfrom into any other cell with more specific specilised muscle cell, nerve cells, brain cells and blood cells