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Transcript of PSYA2
Watson & Rayner
Ellis & Beck (1963)
Rosenhan & Seligman (1989)
Beck (1979) Adapting to the environment
Resistance to stress
Positive attitudes towards the self
Self-actualisation of one's potential
Accurate perception of reality Too demanding! Too subjective! Gender issues! Culture-bound syndromes! Western psychiatrists: cultural blindness! Collectivistic societies Dysfunctional Behaviour - Rosenhan & Seligman (1989) Personal distress
Violation of moral & ideal standards Avoids labelling! Culturally biased! Behaviour that violates implicit & explicit rules of society. Changes over time! Ethnocentric bias! Abnormal/criminal? Example: homosexuality. 'Treated' with aversion therapy; was classed as a psychiatric disorder from 1920s to 1970s. Removed in 1973 from the DSM. 'The most spectacular cure achieved by modern psychiatry was when homosexuality was dropped as a category of mental illness... millions of people recovered overnight.'
~ Johnstone (1989) Infection
Neuroanatomy measurable & objective valid analogy to physical illness - ltd. reductionist unclear cause & effect labelling; stigma; self-fulfilling prophecy Szasz - myth of mental illness
(social factors) Classical Conditioning - learning through associations (Pavlov; Little Albert)
Operant Conditioning - learning through consequences (Skinner)
Social Learning Theory - Bandura Ignores underlying causes Treats symptoms, not cause Effective for phobias Environmentally deterministic Based on animals Lab-based Accounts for cultural differences Reductionist ETHICS Ellis & Beck (1962) Internal/external attribution
(internal - self-blame)
(stable - will always be the same)
(applies to everything) Abnormal behaviour is a result of maladaptive cognitions and irrational beliefs - cognitive errors Beck's Model of Depression (1979) The Negative Triad Negative view of the self
Negative view of the world
Negative view of the future Has validity Focuses on current cognitions Popular & influential Cause/effect Ignores biological explanations Unscientific Blames individual ETHICS The Psyche The Psychosexual Stages Oral Anal Phallic Defence Mechanisms Id Superego Ego Present from birth; innate, selfish urges. Impulsive; seeks constant gratification. Formed age 2 - the reality principle. Moral voice of society (parents). Keeps actions socially fitting. Formed age 5 - the conscience. Acts as personal moral voice; balances id and ego. Birth to 18 months - focus on mouth; feeding, sucking & biting. Adult fixation: smoking, drinking & eating excessively. 18 months to 3yrs - focus on anus; retaining & expelling faeces. Adult fixation: anally expulsive/retentive; OCD 4 to 5yrs - focus on genitals; gender differences are noticed. Oedipus/Electra complex develops. Repression Displacement Led to later models Evidence supports childhood as a factor Childhood determinism Too much sex Lacks scientific evidence Vague & abstract Blames parents Historic & cultural bias ETHICS CBT Physiological Response to Stress Sources of Stress Coping with Stress Okay so this is a nightmare but here goes... Castiel Knows Keeping Kittens Has Faults, But Still he Keeps his Friends. Cohen et al (1991)
Kielcolt-Glaser et al (2005, 1984)
Kanner et al (1981)
Holmes & Rahe (1967)
Freidman & Rosenhan (1959, 1974)
Stone et al (1987)
Falkman & Lazarus (1980) Acute Stress Chronic Stress Consequences of the Stress Response Life Events Daily Hassles Workplace Stressors Personality Factors Cry. Eat chocolate. Wonder where your life went wrong. This is definitely the best definition, btw. Sucks - this is an awful definition. Let's be deviants! NOBODY is normal by this definition. Nope. No-one. Not even YOU. You're all crazy. All of you. (especially not you) Meh, not bad. Freud. Need I say more?! Physical Psychological Drugs (BZs) Drugs (beta blockers) Biofeedback CBT (again) Hardiness Training REBT Challenges irrational cognitions Identifies & challenges negative thoughts Chemotherapy ECT Psychosurgery Modifies brain function to affect mood/behaviour (e.g. clozapine acts on dopamine & serotonin. Effective in 50-60%) Cases of severe depression, 6-12 sessions. Brain stimulated; unilateral/bilateral Lesions to the brain; last resort. Can result in memory loss, loss of movement etc. Systematic Desensitisation Flooding Aversion therapy Token economies Replaces feared response with alternative harmless response through gradual exposure. Exposure to feared object until anxiety response dies down. Associates undesirable behaviour with unpleasant stimuli (The Clockwork Orange) Increasing desirable behaviour by rewards. Free association Word association Dream analysis Projective tests Client expresses anything that comes into their mind. Client hears a word & says the first thing in their head. Dreams represent wish-fulfilment but are censored by the ego. e.g. Rorschach Holmes & Rahe - 1967: Social Readjustment Rating Scale Scores over 300 LCUs meant 80% chance of becoming ill. (Ulcers, CHD, hypertension etc.) Kanner et al (1981) 'the irritating, frustrating, distressing demands that to some degree characterise everyday transactions with environment.' accumulation effect nurses (Gervais, 2005) Low Control High Demand Low Demand High Control BEWARE active job passive job low strain job Brady's monkeys Johansson et al Type A
Type X Leads to high BP, raised stress, CHD Relaxed, laid-back Normal Hardiness Kobasa (1979) Control - belief that you control what happens in your life, rather than believing in external circumstances Commitment - involvement in the world around you, including people & careers - gives you a sense of purpose in life. Challenge - life is seen as a challenge rather than a threat. Life is a time for growth and change. Problem-focused Emotion-focused Taking control; evaluating options; suppressing competing activities Better for work problems Problem must be controllable Common for men Denial and distancing; venting emotions; wishful thinking Good for uncontrollable problems Better for personal relationships Common for women e.g. valium; effective for reducing anxiety & blood pressure; cheap; prevents heart attacks BUT loses effect; side effects; addiction; can lead to depression e.g. propanolol; slows heart rate; quick to take effect; easily available; can be prescribed immediately; reduces arousal levels recording physiological activity & trying various activities to reduce areas of tension (eg. lower blood pressure); very successful for some; no demand characteristics; empowers individual BUT expensive; relaxation just as effective w/o biofeedback helps people cope in stressful situations; effective; targets symptoms AND causes; promotes psychological wellbeing BUT client needs motivation; takes time & application Social Influence Social Influence in Everyday Life Normative social influence - TO BE LIKED Informational social influence - TO BE RIGHT Identification - individual exposed to other's views and changes both private and public views to fit in. May be temporary. Compliance - most superficial. Person conforms publicly whilst privately disagreeing. Internalisation - views are internalised and become part of how that person views the world. Asch (1951) Zimbardo (1973) Moscovici (1969) person conforms due to a need to belong to the group person is unsure how to act so imitates others Milgram (1963) - obedience is due to situational factors. (supported by Hofling et al (1966) 1) Legitimate authority
2) Gradual commitment
3) Agency theory
5) Normality vs. Psychopathology RESISTANCE - allies; morals; personality; gender LOCUS OF CONTROL - external or internal Conformers have lower self esteem indocrination of prisoners dissent as a catalyst for social change terrorism - minority influence Mrs Tran Heard Balthazar Arguing that Gabriel Lives; Castiel Rejoiced Around Missouri. ZEBRAS. Moscovici (1969)
Twenge et al (2004)
Hofling et al (1966)
Griskevicius et al (2006)
Linz & Semykina (2005)
Allen & Levine (1971)