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The American Revolution

From the Great Awakening to the Treaty of Paris 1782

Robert Baker

on 22 August 2016

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Transcript of The American Revolution

After Salem witch trials, people questioned witchcraft..even the Puritans

The Enlightenment ushered in an age of Scientific reasoning

People looked beyond religious doctrine for answers

Saw the world as not governed by miracles but by mathematical laws

These ideas traveled from Europe to colonies through books and pamphlets

Puritans could read because of the need to read the Bible

The Enlightenment
Declaration of Independence
Drafted by John Adams, Robert Livingston, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Thomas Jeffer
Jefferson (Virginia) was the principle author
Congress approved it on July 4, 1776, two days after voting for Independence
Document said:
King George violated natural rights
America is now independent of Britain
It is an ideological explanation for revolution
It incorporated the ideas from John Locke (Enlightenment)
"Life, Liberty, and Property" (natural rights)
Changed to "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness" by Jefferson
Government gets power from consent of the governed
The Social Contract Theory

2nd Continental Congress
Agreed to fight the British

British had attacked already

Appointed George Washington leader of the new Continental Army

Military clashes with British broke out everywhere

Some tried to petition King George for peace
Olive Branch Petition

Did not work – Revolution appeared inevitable

Gage ordered to seize armories of colonial resistance in order to secure his position in Boston which would bring him into conflict with militias

Paul Revere – “The REGULARS are coming!”

1st Continental Congress
Most colonists agreed that a meeting to discuss an appropriate and collective response to British actions was a good idea
Committees of Correspondence helped organize

Delegates from all colonies met in Philadelphia in Sept. 1774
Except Georgia

Most wanted political compromise
However, some wanted rebellion

Drafted a petition which listed grievances
sent to the King

Promised to meet up again if problems not fixed

Tea Act
May 1773

It didn’t really raise the price of tea, it actually lowered it

It forced Americans to buy it from the British East India Company
It created a monopoly

Actually became cheaper than smuggled tea

It gave the British tax dollars because more people would use the cheap tea

Boston Massacre (1770)

Protests turned violent
March 5 1770, a "patriot" mob threw snowalls, sticks, stones, and clubs at a group of British soldiers

Troops eventually fired into the crowd and killed 5
Included Crispus Attucks - a free black man

It led to a campaign by speech writers to rouse the colonists
Paul Revere did an engraving of the events
Even though he wasn’t there
He entitled it "The Bloody Massacre"

Lord North
Became Prime Minister in 1770
Repealed Townshend Act, but kept the tax on tea

Quartering Act
General Thomas Gage
British Commander in America
Forced colonies to provide barracks and food to British soldiers
aka - quartering troops
George Grenville
Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1763

British paid 5x more taxes than Americans

Passed the Sugar Act
Actually reduced tax on molasses and sugar
by half but strictly enforced the collection of
those taxes
Tried to prevent smuggling

If you violated the Sugar Act…
You were tried without a jury by a British judge

The act hindered shipping merchants more than anyone, which is probably why early tax protests were in New England

Reason for Taxes and Quartering
Cost of the French and Indian War war was extremely high
Britain had a war debt

Time to tax the colonies – why?

The British left 10,000 soldiers in North America
To “protect” colonies from hostilities
People forced to quarter troops in their homes

Chief Pontiac’s Rebellion
French and Indian War: British Victories
French and Indian War (Seven Years War)
Lasts from 1754-1763
Started over Ohio and West Pennsylvania

Indians tended to support the French. Why?
Less permanent settlers
Fur trade

Why did some tribes support the British?

French and British competed for control of American lands
Specifically, lands west of the Appalachian Mtns.
An area known as the Ohio River Valley
British Control

Salutary Neglect
British relaxed supervision of colonies
Focused on defense and trade
Allowed the rise of self-government in America and for those governments to self rule for a long time

Navigation Acts
British controlled transport of goods to and from the colonies
Colonists harvested crops and other raw goods and gave them to Britain to be manufactured
Colonists bought British manufactured goods
Colonies were not allowed to manufacture their own

Tremendous success (former actor)

Was a major force in Great Awakening
Definitely the most famous minsiter of the movement
Even Ben Franklin emptied his purse at one of Whitfield's sermons

In one year, Whitefield traveled 5,000 miles through America, preaching more than 350 times as he traversed the nation North to South. An estimated 25,000 people gathered on Boston Common to hear him speak. Another 12,000 heard him in Philadelphia and 8,000 in New York City. In 15 months, as much as a quarter of the country had heard his message.

George Whitfield
Coercive (INTOLERABLE) Acts
A response to the Boston Tea Party
there was no sympathy in the destruction of British property

Parliament passed a series of laws to punish the colonies, and especially Massachusetts

Four new laws:
Closed Boston Harbor
Prohibited town meetings
New Quartering Act
Trials for capital crimes can be moved to Britain
Thomas Gage made Military Governor of Mass.

Rather than quarrel dissent by making an example out of Massachusetts, it organized other colonies against England

The Destruction of the Tea
Sons of Liberty tried to boycott all tea, coffee became popular

Dec. 16th, 1773
American colonists disguised as Native Americans, boarded the ship and dumped around $1 million worth of tea into the Boston Harbor
Years later the event was named the Boston Tea Party

Committees of Correspondence
Because the colonies had no voice in Parliament, they felt that levying taxes against them without consent constituted a violation of English civil liberties

The Massachusetts Colonial Assembly created the Committees of Correspondance to communicate with other colonies
Began as an attempt to unify the colonies in boycotts
Developed into a shadow like government that coordianted responses to British Policy

Townshend Acts of 1767
Tax on paper, paint, glass, and tea
Tea is very popular
Led to more boycotts

Boston and New York were at the heart of all of this
New York began an organized merchants boycott on British importers

Soldiers were now in the streets of Boston to protect customs officials
The presence of soldiers only escalated tensions

British Reaction to Colonial Resistance
King George III fired Grenville, replaced him with Lord Rockingham
The Stamp Act is repealed
Passed the Declaratory Act

Rockingham stepped down in 1766, William Pitt became PM
However, he was sickly so Chancellor Charles Tonshend spearheaded policy

Organized by Samuel Adams to protest the Stamp Act

Other prominent members: John Hancock, Ben Franklin, John Adams

Destroyed British property
Burned tax collectors in effigy
Organized boycotts
Joined by the Daughters of Liberty
Wove fabric for colonists during the boycott
Didn’t have to rely on British imports

The boycotts were effective - other colonies joined and started Sons of Liberty Groups - the rise in violence and effective boycotts helped in the Stamp Acts' repeal
Stamp Act
Stamp Tax passed in 1765
Put a tax on on every piece of printed paper colonists used.

Court documents, titles, playing cards, newspapers, etc.

Tax was to help pay the costs of defending and protecting the American frontier near the Appalachian Mountains (10,000 troops were to be stationed on the American frontier for this purpose

Similar tax in Britain - what made it so offensive is as opposed to regulating commerce like taxes and duties on trade, this tax was simply to raise money - something the colonial legislatures usually did.

Ben Franklin suggested Colonists be represented in Parliament
Quickly rejected

“No Taxation without representation!”

Proclamation of 1763
Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the war
French and Indian War
A religious revival which stressed a personal relationship with God
And confessing your sins

Huge gatherings and camp meetingsto hear sermons

Jonathan Edwards
Famous preacher

Said men and women were completely dependent on God, a reaction to the Enlightenement's view on wordly issues and worldly manners
Wanted a return to Puritan view

“Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God (1741)

The Great Awakening 1730s to 1750s c.e.
Common Sense

Thomas Paine wrote a pamphlet in Jan. 1776

Common Sense
Leaders needed support of the colonists, Thomas Paine helped with this pamphlet

Common Sense criticized the king and united much of America to war

Questioned why anyone would remain loyal to the King

Made people want independence

God in America: Part 1 - 'A New Adam'
Start at 32:50
Ben Franklin & The Albany Plan of Union
One of America’s Founding Fathers
Born to a poor family
Moved to London, then Philly in 1726
Very individualistic
Rose from a poor family to famous philosopher, scientist, politician
(example of
social mobility

Ben Franklin’s Albany Plan of Union
Assembly of colonies in a more centralized government to:
Manage trade
Indian relations
Did not pass
Early attempt at uniting colonies under one government

Sons of Liberty
April 18th, 1775
700 soldiers met patriots first at Lexington, then at Concord Minutemen (militia)
"Shot heard round the world"
Paul Revere and his Midnight Ride
In June 1776, Richard Henry Lee introduced a motion to declare independence
Not all were in agreement but the congress did form a committee to draft a declaration - this was assigned primarily to Thomas Jefferson

On July 2, 1776, the 2nd Continental Congress voted for independence - John Adams wrote his wife:
"The second day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable epoch in the history of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of deliverance, by solemn acts of devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows, games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations, from one end of this continent to the other, from this time forward forever more."

He was off by two...
The Road to Revolution
Taxes and Colonial Resistance
The Enlightenment, Great Awakening and the Frontier
British claimed all lands east of the Mississippi & Florida
Except New Orleans
France also gave the British Quebec

Britain took full control of American colonies

Indians realized the British were harder to bargain with, trade with, and live with…

Pontiac preached a return to traditional ways and to reject contact with the British
he aligned his tribe, the Ottawa, with many other tribes and launched attacks
Seized numerous British forts and killed 2,000

Alliance began to weaken
Forced to sign a peace treaty

One tactic used by the British to defeat Indians:
Blankets laced with smallpox

The idea was to create a Native American safe haven to de-escalate tensions between colonists and Native Americans
The British had difficulty balancing the two sides' interests anyways

No white settlements west of the Appalachians
Colonists would ignore it

British intent was to minimize conflict between the two sides
No conflict = less money spent on defense

British took Fort Duquesne (renamed Fort Pitt)

Took Quebec and Montreal

British victories convinced Iroquois to join British
By 1763 the war was nearing an end

Big defeat for the British at Fort Duquesne
British Commander Braddock killed
George Washington involved
Gained useful experience in this war
Also noticed British weaknesses
By 1756 the war had spread to Europe (7 Years War)

William Pitt takes over British ops in America, things changed

The French & Indian War and the Frontier
Life on the Frontier and Tensions with the Native Americans
Revolution Begins
The Frontier Experience
Think about these questions as the video clip plays.
a. How is the frontier depicted (presented) in the film? Who lives there and why?
b. What are the particular experiences of the frontier settlers?
c. Why might they not see it in their interests to ally themselves with Britain?
d. How does life on the frontier compare to others colonial experiences you may have learned about? (Jamestown, Plymouth)
e. What are some 21st Century Frontiers?

Seeds of Revolution
a. What are the motivations for resisting Britain?
b. What are the particular experiences of the frontier settlers in this clip?
c. Why might they not see it in their interests to ally themselves with Britain?
d. How do feelings and allegiances change? How are terms such as loyalty and sedition defined? Are they debated?
e. How can we begin to map out here what is to come 20 years down the line in the American colonies?
f. How do native Americans choose their own interests and allegiances with the British? French? Colonists?
g. How are political arguments about revolution discussed? Think “Tyranny.”

The Revolutionary War
Key Questions Remain

Who should participate in government?
How should the government answer the people?
How could a government be set up so that opposing groups of citizens would all have a voice?

Legacy of the American Revolution
Inspired other revolutions, including one in France

Slavery began to be abolished in the North

Native Americans were in trouble
Americans wanted the West, more land
Remember, Americans are culturally British - it's a continuation of policy

New Government
A Republic
Government by the people

Treaty of Paris, 1783
Peace talks began in Paris in 1782
Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay

Treaty was signed in 1783
Britain recognized American independence
US boundaries are set:
Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River
From Canada down to Florida

General Cornwallis
Leader of the British Army of the South

British plan developed where Cornwallis would divide the Continental Army by moving the war south
More loyalists in the South
Rally support

The Continental Army sent Horatio Gates, the supposed victor of Saratoga. Cornwallis humiliated Gates for all eternity at the Battle of Camden (S.C.)

Cornwallis achieved early victories in the South

Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin von Steuben

“Baron von Steuben”
Wasn't really a Baron, or a general. Prussian Captain
Also thought to be a homosexual
Washington did not care, historically most Americans have not cared either

Steuben is known as the "Drill Master of Valley Forge" Taught Washington’s troops how to:
Stand at attention
Use bayonets

Troops came out hardened and trained after that winter - able to fight the British toe to toe and secure victories at Monmouth Courthouse and Yorktown

Valley Forge
Washington is defeated by Howe and lost Philidelphia, the seat of power in the colonies

Took camp for the winter NE of Philly at Valley Forge
He camped there to keep an eye on Howe and follow his movements

New hope thanks to the victory at Saratoga

10,000 men encamped, 2,000 die
Food, clothing, and medicine shortages
Local farmers hoarded food in order to turn profits in the Spring
some sold food to the Britishin exchange for gold and silver
Very harsh winter (some Historians think G.W. may have embellished this a bit)

French Alliance
Ben Franklin
American Ambassador to France during the war
Franklin and Jefferson were instrumental in negotiating the Franco-American Treaty of 1778
This alliance helped turn the tide of the war

France would help in America and also fight Britain in the Carribean and India
Forced Britain to send supplies to places other than America
France shipped large quanitites of muskets, cannons, shot, and powder to the Continental Army

Marquis de Lafayette
French Officer who came to American before the treaty
Helped train American soldiers
1779, went to France to get their army and navy to America quicker
These forces proved to be essential at Yorktown
Later led French and Amer. troops into battle

Battles of Trenton & Princeton, New Jersey

Christmas of 1776
a victory

2,400 men and Washington crossed the icy Delaware River
Surprised Hessian soldiers
Captured 918, killed 30

Washington kills 200 at Princeton
Drives the British out there as well

The largest impact the battles had was a boost in morale for the colonies
New York and New Jersey
Early Battles
Battles of Lexington and Concord
April 19th, 1775

Colonists captured Fort Ticonderoga – Ethan Allen
“Come on out you old rat!”

Battle of Bunker Hill
British General: William Howe
June 17th, 1775

Battle of Yorktown
Cornwallis caught Greene at Guilford Court House and won a small victory - the victory damaged Cornwallis's supplies and army so he marched to Yorktown to rest and resupply - Yorktown is a coastal town

Battle of Yorktown - Final battle of the Revolutionary War
French Admiral Comte de Grasse defeated the British Navy in Chesapeake Bay
blocked Cornwallis's sea escape
French and American armies surrounded Yorktown
After 3 weeks, Cornwallis surrendered his 8,000 men
Oct. 18th, 1781

Benedict Arnold
Angry after Saratoga, he felt that he had been shunned and Horatio Gates got all the credit
Bit of an insult to his honor

Put in charge at West Point (a fort)
Decided to sell the fort to the British
Plan was foiled and he had to flee to Britain

Later led cavalry units for the British in
Virginia. Caused problems for the
American Army

Sort of a sad affair. Arnold was probably the most capable commander in the American Army
There would be cities and towns named after him today
Instead, he's the hero of Saratoga not mentioned by name

Battles out West
Illinois and Kentucky saw fighting too

Rogers Clark and Patrick Henry

Great leaders out West

Huge victory at the Battle of King's Mountain
*Loyalist Militia vs Patriot Militia
Because of previous actions by British Commander Banastre Tarleton, the Patriots showed no quarter to wounded Loyalists until officers restored order.
Battle of Cowpens
Nathaniel Greene is put in charge of the Southern Continental Army

Greene made a hasty decision to divide his Army and send a portion of it west to recruit soldiers and find supplies -
Daniel Morgan
took command of that wing of the Army

Cornwallis saw this other army as a threat to his flank.
He sent Banastre Tarleton to deal with it.

Large battle in South Carolina
British underestimated the Americans
Americans forced the British to retreat

Angered Cornwallis

Cornwallis realized the southern strategy was not working
He ditched extra supplies, left S. Carolina and marched hard to deal with Greene's army.

Northern Battles

Henry Clinton leading the British
Battle of Monmouth Courthouse
June 1778
Molly Pitcher
Brought water to soldiers fighting
Husband was wounded
She helped fire the cannons

Battles of Saratoga
Saratoga, New York in Sept. 1777
Horatio Gates vs. Jonny Burgoyne (Brit)

Benedict Arnold and Daniel Morgan
Won key battles for Gates against Burgoyne
The real heroes of the Battle

Oct. 17th Burgoyne surrenders
Over 5,000 men captured

Major Importance:
French see the victory
Realize we can win…sign an
with colonists
They don’t get along with British, remember?
Turning point battle

George Washington
Commander of the Continental Army
Refused a salary

Had 14,000 troops initially, mostly militia
No uniforms
Old muskets
No discipline
Little food

Militia soldiers
contrary to the romantic opinion, they were terrible soldiers
Raised by states
pay scales differed
terms of service could be 1 to 3 years

Washington worked to fix this,, he urged the Continental Conress to create a standing army
The Continental Army

Independence is declared July 4th, 1776

Battles move to New York and New Jersey

Battle of Long Island, July 1776
British troops and German Mercenaries
British take NYC, Washington retreats …strategically….sort of

The American Revolution
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