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KRASHEN'S THEORY OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING

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Cele Muttis

on 5 September 2013

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Transcript of KRASHEN'S THEORY OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING

KRASHEN´S THEORY OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING
The Acquisition - Learning Hypothesis
ACQUISITION



The product of a subconscious process

The result of natural interaction with the target language via meaningful communication.



The Monitor Hypothesis
LEARNING

only one function:
MONITOR/EDITOR

The Natural Order Hypothesis
The acquisition of grammatical structures follows a 'natural order' which is predictable
- Concerned only with acquisition
The Affective Filter Hypothesis
Affective variables
STEPHEN KRASHEN
LEARNING



The product of a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge “about” the formal properties of language, as for example the grammar rules.

The result of formal instruction
What do Krashen's Hypotheses look like in the classroom?
WHAT? ---> meaning

WHO? -----> children

WHERE? --> natural environment

WHY? -----> need to communicate

HOW? ----->subconsciously
WHAT? ---> form

WHO? -----> adults

WHERE? --> classroom

WHY? -----> willingness

HOW? -----> consciously
< Acquisition >
< Learning >
Professor at University of Southern California.

Linguist, Educational Reasercher and Activist

Published over 100 books and invited to give over 300

lectures

Proposed a Theory of Second Language Acquisition

the Acquisition-Learning hypothesis

the Monitor hypothesis

the Natural Order hypothesis

the Input hypothesis

the Affective Filter hypothesis
ACQUISITION

initiates UTTERANCES. Fluency



ACQUIRED SYSTEM


UTTERANCE
CRITICISM
Used to explain Individual Differences

Monitor "over- users"

Monitor "under- users"

"Optimal" monitor users

MONITOR
WHEN?
-Learner improves and progresses
along "natural order"
when he/she receives
COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT
i + 1
Learner´s current competence
If INPUT is
too simple
(already acquired)
or
too complex
(i+ 2/3/4...)
not useful for acquisition
The Input Hypothesis
CRITICISM

Too vague and imprecise
Speech
If input is understood and enough
=
necessary grammar is provided
Motivation

Self- confidence

Anxiety
Metaphorical barrier
When it´s low
when its high
How the affective Filter works
it prevents input from being acquired
it allows language acquisition to take place
Wow.. she sure is using a lot of Spanish.. She NEVER speaks in English anymore
Uh...oh...she is calling on people...please not me, please not me.
Oh thank goodness... it wasn't me... this time
Oh.. I understand that... and that.
I think she is talking about the weekend... yeah definitely future tense...
How would I say that... yo tengo...no... yo soy... ah... there is no way I can talk without practising in my head first...
Full transcript