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KRASHEN'S THEORY OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING
Transcript of KRASHEN'S THEORY OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING
The Acquisition - Learning Hypothesis
The product of a subconscious process
The result of natural interaction with the target language via meaningful communication.
The Monitor Hypothesis
only one function:
The Natural Order Hypothesis
The acquisition of grammatical structures follows a 'natural order' which is predictable
- Concerned only with acquisition
The Affective Filter Hypothesis
The product of a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge “about” the formal properties of language, as for example the grammar rules.
The result of formal instruction
What do Krashen's Hypotheses look like in the classroom?
WHAT? ---> meaning
WHO? -----> children
WHERE? --> natural environment
WHY? -----> need to communicate
WHAT? ---> form
WHO? -----> adults
WHERE? --> classroom
WHY? -----> willingness
HOW? -----> consciously
< Acquisition >
< Learning >
Professor at University of Southern California.
Linguist, Educational Reasercher and Activist
Published over 100 books and invited to give over 300
Proposed a Theory of Second Language Acquisition
the Acquisition-Learning hypothesis
the Monitor hypothesis
the Natural Order hypothesis
the Input hypothesis
the Affective Filter hypothesis
initiates UTTERANCES. Fluency
Used to explain Individual Differences
Monitor "over- users"
Monitor "under- users"
"Optimal" monitor users
-Learner improves and progresses
along "natural order"
when he/she receives
i + 1
Learner´s current competence
If INPUT is
not useful for acquisition
The Input Hypothesis
Too vague and imprecise
If input is understood and enough
necessary grammar is provided
When it´s low
when its high
How the affective Filter works
it prevents input from being acquired
it allows language acquisition to take place
Wow.. she sure is using a lot of Spanish.. She NEVER speaks in English anymore
Uh...oh...she is calling on people...please not me, please not me.
Oh thank goodness... it wasn't me... this time
Oh.. I understand that... and that.
I think she is talking about the weekend... yeah definitely future tense...
How would I say that... yo tengo...no... yo soy... ah... there is no way I can talk without practising in my head first...