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Dissemination Event - South Sherman

Traffic Safety in school zones

Yvonne Tse

on 25 November 2012

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Transcript of Dissemination Event - South Sherman

Traffic Safety in School Zones South Sherman Neighbourhood Elementary Schools
in South Sherman Adelaide Hoodless
Cathy Wever
Prince of Wales
Holy Spirit
Notre-Dame School zones: Sites of risk Strategies Infrastructure Strategies Social Strategies Social Intervention Programs to Enhance Traffic Safety Who are we ? Course: Hth Sci 3HN3 Partnership with Hamilton Neighbourhoods
Working with Community Consultants
Attended Community monthly meetings Action Plan Objective #3
To advocate for reduced traffic in major streets
Work with police services and by-law enforcements to increase compliance to traffic laws St. Columba Cathy Wever Prince of Wales Adelaide Hoodless Statistics Key Messages Kelly Scott Physical Activity Specialist, City of Hamilton Public
Healthy Services Bernie Morelli Councillor, Ward 3 Dr. Niko Yiannakoulias Assistant Professor at McMaster University Guest Speakers Panel Key Messages Questions? References References Holy Spirit Notre Dame Notre Dame Holy Spirit Cathy Wever
(Cannon Street) St.Columba Prince of Wales Elementary schools are at greater risk
increased children frequency around schools
Collisions greater with decreasing distance to school zones The Problem Time/Rush hours Greater than 50% of collisions occur during rush hours
Rush hours are defined by: Success of school signs in Defined school Areas Introducing signs of reduced speeds resulted in decreased accidents
i.e. London - decreased by 41.9%
Compared before and after signs were placed, drastically decreased pedestrian injuries around school zones Compliance Driver compliance to the 40km/hr one is lower than of 60 km/hr zone
Faster speed approach of the signs (60 km/hr) had vehicles speeding higher than the designated sign Compliance & Communicative Devices Flashing Lights (Simpson, 2008) No consensus in traffic research in whether school zones with flashing lights are more effective than school zones without flashing lights for reducing vehicle speed
Texas: Flashing light school zone signs were effective in slowing vehicles
North Carolina: No significant difference between school zones with and without flashing lights (Saibel, Salzberg, Doane, & Moffat, 1999; Simpson, 2008 ) Effective method of reducing vehicle speed
In Texas average speed dropped from 44.5mph to 35.3 mph
Short and long-term effects
Greatest effect on drivers traveling at speeds substantially higher than the speed limit Dynamic Speed Displays Dynamic Speed Displays Which is the most effective type? (Gehlert, Schulze & Schlaa, 2012) Automated Speed Cameras Correlation between speed cameras and reduced speeds and crashes
Percentage of vehicles over speed limit reduced by 14-65%
Total road traffic crashes reduced by 8-49% (Wilson, Willis, Hendrikz, Le Brocque & Bellamy, 2010) Automated Speed Camera In Portland, public information and education campaigns increased effectiveness of the speed camera demonstration
Importance of involving the community in traffic safety initiatives Social intervention programs not only encourages pedestrian safety, but also a sense of community Child Pedestrian Children lack cognitive ability to safely decide when to cross busy intersections Parental Modeling Behaviour Children spend most of their time with parents/caregivers
Less than 10% of parents directly teach safe pedestrian behaviour skills to children
Modeling is dependent on age & gender of child School-based Traffic Safety Programs Elmer the Safety Elephant
Use of talking toy police car to teach safety increased knowledge in 98% of Grade 1 children Walking School Bus Zippy Walking Bus in New Zealand
Reduced traffic by 30% near school zones
Increased walking and social cohesion 1. City of Hamilton Public Works (2010). 2010 Traffic Safety Status Report Volume 1. Retrieved from http://www.hamilton.ca/NR/rdonlyres/E8EE9F6D-95BE-483C-A055-517F1B7EE933/76133/2010CollisionReportFinal.pdf.
2. Warsh, J., Rothman, L., Slater, M., Steverango, C., & Howard, A. (2009). Are School Zones effective? An examination of motor vehicle versus Child Pedestrian crashes near Schools. Injury Prevention, 15, 226- 229. doi:10.1136/ip.2008.020446
3. Clifton, K.J., & Kreamer-Fults, K. (2007). An Examination of the environmental attributes associated with Pedestrian-vehicular crashes near public Schools. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39, 708-715.
4. Saibel, C., Salzberg, P., Doane, R., & Moffat, J. (1999). Vehicle Speeds in School Zones. ITE Journal 69, 11, 38-43. http://www.wtsc.wa.gov/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2010/03/schoolzone_vehiclespeeds0699.pdf
5. Graham, A., & Sparkes, P. (2010). Casualty Reductions in NSW associated with the 40 km/h school zone initiative. NSW Centre for Road Safety, Roads and Traffic Authority, 1-8. http://casr.adelaide.edu.au/rsr/RSR2010/GrahamA.pdf
6. Grundy, C., Steinbach, R., Edwards, P., Green, J., Armstrong, B., & Wilkinson, P. (2009). Effect of 20 mph traffic speed zones on road injuries in London, 1986-2006: controlled interrupted time series analysis. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 339.
7. Radalj, T. Driver Speed Compliance within School Zones and effects of “40” Painted Speed Limit on Driver Speed Behaviours. (2002). http://arsrpe.acrs.org.au/pdf/RS020045.PDF
8. Simpson, C.L. (2008). Evaluation of Effectiveness of School Zone Flashers in North Carolina. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2074: 21-28. Doi: 10.3141/2074-03
9. Ullman, G.L., & Rose, E.R. (2005). Evaluation of dynamic speed display signs. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1918: 92–97.
10. Gehlert, T., Schulze, C., & Schlag, B. (2012). Evaluation of different types of dynamic speed display signs. Transportation Research Part F 15(2012): 667-675. Doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2012.07.004
11. Wilson, C., Willis, C., Hendrikz, J.K., Le Brocque, R., & Bellamy, N. (2010). Speed cameras for the prevention of road traffic injuries and deaths. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010 (11), CD004607. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004607.pub4.
12. Freedman, M., De Leonardis, D., Raisman, G., InyoSwan, D., Davis, A.,
Levi, S., Rogers, I., Bergeron, E. (2006). Demonstration of Automated Speed Enforcement in School Zones in Portland, Oregon. Retrieved from National Highway Traffic Safety Administration website: http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/26000/26600/26644/Demonstration_of_Automated_Speed_Enforcement_in_School_Zones_DOT_HS_810_764_May_2007.pdf
13. Bjarnason, S. (2004). Round top and flat top humps: The influence of design on the effects. Lund Institute of Technology, Department of Technology and Society, Traffic Engineering.
14 .Bunn, F., Collier, T., Frost, C., Ker, K., Roberts, I. & Wentz, R. (2003). Traffic calming for the prevention of road traffic injuries: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Injury Prevention, 9, 200-204.
15. Wazana, A., Raina, P. & Chamber, L.W. (2000). Are child pedestrians at increased risk of injury on one-way compared to two-way streets? Canadian Journal of Public Health, 91(3), 201-206.
16. Wilkerson, A., Carlson, N.E., Yen, I.H. & Michael, Y.L. (2012). Neighbourhood physical features and relationships with neighbors: Does positive physical environment increase neighbourliness? J ournal of Environment and Behaviour, 44(5), 595-614. doi: 10.1177/0013916511402058
17. Cottrill, C. D., & Thakuriah, P. (2010). Evaluation pedestrian crashes in areas with high low income or minority populations. Elsevier, 42 (2010), 1718-1728. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2010.04.012
18. Morrongiello, B. A., & Barton, B. K. (2009). Child pedestrian safety: Parental supervision, modeling behaviours, and beliefs about child pedestrian competence. Elsevier, 41(2009), 1040-1046. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2009.06.017
19. Morrongiello, B. A., & Kiriakou, S. (2006). Evaluation of effectiveness of single-session school-based programmes to increase children’s seat belt and pedestrian safety knowledge and self-reported behaviours. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion. 13(1): 15-25. doi: 10.1080/17457300500151770
20. Kearns, R. A., Collins, D. C. A., & Neuwelt, P. M. (2003). The walking school bus: extending children’s geographies? Royal Geographical Society, 35(3), 285- 292. doi:10.1111/1475-4762.00177
as 1. No one strategy is the solution

2. Each school is unique in its needs and concerns

3. Importance of collaboration with community members and the city/by-laws offices/police offices 1. No one strategy is the solution

2. Each school is unique in its needs and concerns

3. Importance of colloration with
community members and the city/by-laws offices/police offices Key Messages (City of Hamilton, 2010) (City of Hamilton, 2010) (City of Hamilton, 1999) A. B. C. 7-9 am
12-1 pm
3-5 pm 1. No one strategy is the solution

2. Each school is unique in its needs and concerns

3. Importance of collaboration with community members and the city/by-laws offices/police offices (Clifton & Kreamer-Fults, 2007) (Graham & Sparkes, 2010) (Saibel et al., 1999) (Warsh et al., 2009)
(Graham & Sparkes, 2010) (Graham & Sparkes, 2010) (Radalj, 2002) (Ullman & Rose, 2005) Traffic calming devices Definition: The combination of mostly physical measures to alter driver behaviour and improve conditions for non-motorized street users. In 586 reports, 16 controlled before and after studies found there was an 11% decrease in road traffic injuries with traffic calming devices Traffic calming has the potential to prevent road traffic injuries (Bunn et al., 2003) Significance Comparing data from 1978-1994
75% of all the child pedestrian injuries occurred on one-way streets
48% of all child pedestrian injuries occurred on two-way streets Multiple Factors One-way streets
Unreported injuries
Number and quality of exposure to cars Think about: Neighbourliness
Other neighbourhoods
Other: Number of lanes (Is there a difference between 4 lanes of one-way streets and 2 lanes of one-way streets?) (Bunn et al., 2003) (Wazana, Ralna & Chamber, 2000) (Wilkerson et al., 2012) (Bunn et al., 2003) (Schwebell Davis & O’Neal, 2012) (Cottrill & Thakuriah, 2010) (Morrongiello & Barton 2009) (Morrongiello & Kiriakou 2006) (Kearns, Collins & Neuwelt, 2003) Dr.Niko Yiannakoulias Assistant Professor, School of Geography and Earth Sciences (McMaster University)
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