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Age of Revolutions and Nation-States WHAP
Transcript of Age of Revolutions and Nation-States WHAP
AP World History
: relative autonomy prior to 7 Yrs War, Enlightenment.
: Responses to tax Acts: Sons of Liberty, boycotts, Boston Tea Party, Boston Massacre.
: Continental Congress, Declaration of Independence, Lexington and Concord, Saratoga, FR enter, Yorktown.
: Treaty of Paris 1783, Articles of Confederation, Constitution, Bill of Rights
Incubation: Long-term causes of revolution
Colonial wars and fiscal crisis: many European wars over succession (AUS and SP) along with 7 Years War left BR and FR in a LOT of debt and in need of more tax income.
Enlightenment: philosophical movement in Europe that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that govern social behavior.
Locke: natural rights
Rousseau: social contract: monarchs follow general will of the people.
The French Revolution
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
1. Inequality among Estates (social classes)
1st- clergy 2nd- nobles 3rd- bourgeoisie, peasants
2. Severe financial crisis- American Rev, population growth, bad harvests
3. Spread of enlightenment ideas questioned hereditary privileges
Causes of the French Revolution
Louis XVI summoned the Estates General to vote on new taxes for the nobles.
SURPRISE! the 1st and 2nd estate don't vote for the tax.
Third Estate went to a different room and declared itself a National Assembly.
get locked out by Louis XVI & then form Tennis Court Oath.
The Estates General
National Assembly at the Tennis Court
abolished hereditary privileges
created Constitutional Monarchy
secularized the Church, taking away their political power.
End of Louis and Marie
Rumor that Marie Antoinette was hiding grain at palace, so armed, peasant women stormed the palace and forced Louis & Marie to move to prison in Paris.
Royal family tries to escape to Austria, but is caught.
Convention overthrows and executes Louis XVI in 1793 b/c he is seen as a traitor to FR. Marie is next.
France at war with most of Europe so introduced mass draft. Lovely military general Napoleon starts to make a name for himself.
Robespierre launched Reign of Terror against all dissenters, creates The Directory to control FR.
guillotine city, 40,000 killed that year.
Radical leaders are later executed. Conservatives kill Robespierre (to be fair he had started this really weird cult).
Reign of Terror
Challenged divine right and noble privilege in Europe.
Removed feudalism from France, replaced with constitutional govt.
Bourgeoisie (middle class) has political power not king and nobles (Democratic Govt and social equality)
American and French Rev serves as models for citizens wanting political change.
Rise of NAPOLEON
Impact of French Revolution
Spoiler alert: it doesn't work out well.
Citizens heard Louis XVI was going to retaliate (to be fair, he sent troops to quell peasant uprisings over food), so they storm the Bastille for weapons.
Dismantled the prison, the guards abandoned it.
Leads to peasant rebellions all over FR
Militias are formed.
Storming of the Bastille
Declaration of the Rights of Man
which was based on the ideals of the Enlightenment.
Beauty and the Beast was set during Revolutionary France... doesn't look so good for the new nobles. Dancing silverware = over the top palace at Versailles
Aftermath of DORMAC
Life lesson: don't ever underestimate a hangry woman.
Famed general names himself emperor.
Conquers most of Europe, but this created anti-french feelings and nationalism.
Had some probs in Russia, which led to his military's demise at Waterloo.
Tried to make a comeback, but he ain't Britney.
Good Guy: Napoleonic CODE! basis of Euro law code today.
all citizens equal, religious toleration, abolishes feudalism, trial by jury, etc.
Introduced FR Rev to rest of Europe, ending serfdom.
Led to growth of nationalism, weakened SP, AND Louisiana Purchase to US.
Latin American Revolutions
Cause: rising power of creoles, declining power of Euro monarchs, inspiration from Am and Fr Revos and Enlightenment
Simon Bolivar (from Venezuela) led several countries in South America: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
Mexico will gain its independence after a very long and destructive war.
Brazil will gain independence as a monarchy under Pedro II, the Portuguese prince protected in Brazil.
PS: Italy and Germany become unified states! Hooray!
This is Otto von Bismarck. He was led the unification of Germany with his policy of "blood and iron".