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Kelly Marie Hobbs

on 18 November 2016

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The History of Professional Cooking
Origins of Classical & Modern Cuisine
17th century Haute Cuisine
Large Groups to Feed
Napoleon's chef
François Pierre de la Varenne

What does 'Haute Cuisine' mean?
* haute couture = high fashion
haute cuisine = ???
18th to 19th Century Cuisine
19th to 20th Century Cuisine
Marie-Antoine Carême
(actually a man)
Mother Sauces
__________(one in which the bones used have
not been roasted), such as chicken, veal or fish stock
Blond roux.
Scalded ______ whisked gradually into a white flour-butter roux
The thickness of the final sauce depends on the proportions of milk and flour.
Georges Auguste Escoffier
began his career at the age of 12
retired at the age of 74
Savoy Hotel, and he created the péche Melba for the famous singer Nellie Melba when she was staying there in 1893
Set out to change every field of art and science, including gastronomy.
His aim was “to invent something new at all costs, judged by all as a crazy.”
Abolition of dry pasta and all the deemed "traditional"
Abolition of tableware and a return to the “tactile pleasures” of eating.
Bite-sized morsels “that contain ten, twenty flavors to taste in a few seconds”. He wanted to “create plastic, flavorful, colorful, aromatic and tactile substances” for real “stimulating meals".
Plasticmeat, a creation by painter Fillia, paired with aromas that help digestion.
Used poetry and music as ingredients.
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876–1944)

Some food on the table would not be eaten, but only experienced by the eyes and nose
Food would arrive rapidly and contain many flavors, but only a few mouthfuls in size
The Manifesto of Futurist Cooking
Traditional kitchen equipment would be replaced by scientific equipment, bringing modernity and science to the kitchen thus eliminating the limiting. Suggested equipment included:
Ozonizers-- to give food the smell of ozone
Ultraviolet ray lamps -- activates vitamins and other "active properties"
Electrolyzers -- to decompose items into new forms and properties
Colloidal mills -- to pulverize any food item
Autoclaves, dialyzers, atmospheric and vacuum stills to cook food without destroying vitamins
Chemical indicators or analyzers to help the cook determine if sauces need more salt, sugar, or vinegar
eat pieces of olive, fennel, and kumquat.

caresses various swatches of sandpaper, velvet, and silk.
Futurism in Italy
range baking salads dish
A signature Futurist dish, with a strong tactile element.
Right Hand:

Left Hand:
At the same time, the diner is blasted with a giant fan (preferable an airplane propeller) and nimble waiters spray him with the scent of carnation, all to the strains of a Wagner opera. (“Astonishing results,” Marinetti says. “Test them and see.”)
What style did French chefs in the late
1960's & 1970's become famous for?
Nouvelle Cuisine
rejected traditional principles

believed in artful plating
- flour to thicken sauces
- heavy sauces
- long cooking times
The heavily spiced flavours of the Middle Ages were abandoned in favour of the natural flavours of foods.

Exotic spices like saffron, cinnamon, cumin, ginger, nutmeg, cardamom, nigella, seeds of paradise were, with the exception of pepper, replaced by local herbs like parsley, thyme, bayleaf, chervil, sage, tarragon.

Cauliflower, asparagus, peas, cucumber and artichoke were introduced.

Everything had to be fresh!
Haute Cuisine
Haute cuisine meaning
High Cuisine
He created _________ sauces that formed the basis of his cooking style.
__________ roux
Veal stock or water
Browned bones, pieces of beef, vegetables, and various seasonings.
Reduce while being frequently skimmed.
Dark brown
What is the difference between a
Dark stock and a Light stock?
Light stock
What is a Roux?
Thickened with
Melted butter
Seasoned with lemon juice.
A light stock is made from: _____________________________________________________
A dark stock is made from: _____________________________________________________
unroasted bones of chicken, veal or fish
browned bones of beef or veal
5. There are four mother sauces:
_________________________, _________________________,

____________________________ and _________________________.
born into a poor family
began his career at age 15 as a kitchen helper in a Parisian restaurant
started working at a fashionable pastry shop
made elaborately sculptured confections for the table of Napoleon
Le Cuisinier parisien ou l’art de la cuisine française au XIXe siècle (1828; “The Parisian Cook, or the Art of French Cooking in the 19th Century”
Le Patissier royal parisien (1828; “The Royal Parisian Pastry-Chef”)
L’Art de la cuisine française au XIXe siècle (1833; “The Art of French Cooking in the 19th Century”)
Le Patissier pittoresque (1842; “The Picturesque Pastry-Chef”)
Le Maitre d’hotel français, traité des menus à servir à Paris, à Saint-Pétersbourg, à Londres, à Vienne (1820; “The French Head Waiter: A Selection of Menus to Serve in Paris, Saint Petersburg, London, and Vienna”)
a mixture of flour and fat used for thickening sauces and soups
modernizing the haute cuisine

created the brigade system
Georges Auguste

_______________ is the person in charge of the kitchen. In large establishments this person has the title of executive chef. The executive chef is a manager who is responsible for all aspects of food production, including menu planning, purchasing, costing, and planning work schedules.

________________is directly in charge of production. Because the executive chef's responsibilities require spending a great deal of time in the office, the sous chef takes command of the actual production and the minute-by-minute supervision of the staff. Both the sous chef and executive chef have had many years of experience in all stations of the kitchen.

_______________ are in charge of particular areas of production. The following are the most important station chefs:

________________ prepares sauces, stews, and hot hors d'oeuvres, and sautés foods to order. This is usually the highest position of all the stations.

________________ prepares fish dishes. (This station may be handled by the saucier in some kitchens.)

_________________ prepares vegetables, soups, starches, and eggs. Large kitchens may divide these duties among the vegetable cook, the fry cook, and the soup cook.

_________________ prepares roasted and braised meats and their gravies and broils meats and other items to order. A large kitchen may have a separate broiler cook or grillardin (gree-ar-dan) to handle the broiled items. The broiler cook may also prepare deep-fried meats and fish.

_________________ is responsible for cold foods, including salads and dressings, patés, cold hors d'oeuvres, and buffet items.

______________ prepares pastries and desserts.

The relief cook, swing cook, or ______________ replaces other station heads.
Kitchen Positions
classical brigade
Executive chef
Sous chef
Chef de Partie
Garde Manger
24. Rejection of excessive complication in cooking. Keep it ___________!

25. Reduce the cooking times to preserve the __________ flavors.

26. Using _____________ possible ingredients in cooking

27.__________ menus were abandoned in favor of shorter menus

28. Strong ______________ for meat and game ceased to be used

29. Stopping the use of heavy sauces in favor of seasoning dishes with ________ herbs, quality butter, lemon juice, and vinegar.

30. Use of regional dishes for inspiration.

31. New techniques were embraced and modern equipment was often used.

32. The chefs paid close attention to the dietary needs of their guests through their dishes.

33. The chefs were extremely inventive and created new _________________ and pairings.
Mid 20th Century to Late 20th Century Cuisine
Rebelling against the “orthodoxy” of
Escoffier’s cuisine. Gault and Millau
“discovered the formula” containing
the characteristics of this
nouvelle cuisine
Characteristics of Nouvelle Cuisine
Guild System
& apprenticeship
What does this mean?
Time Line
master cooks in noble houses
urban streets (Cuisiniers and traiteurs
Guild system regulated artisan practices in France
Guilds controlled apprentices, the only means available for acquiring training in artisanal crafts and becoming an established craftsperson
Two Guilds
French Revolution
1789 until 1799
Chef de Cuisine
head of any large establishment, public or private.
Up until the middle of the eighteenth century, all those with the title Chef de Cuisine worked for the nobility
Increased urbanization
Decline of the monarchical state
Rise of bourgeois city life
Tables became the sites for asserting social rank
Birth of the Restaurant
Even though the official guild system was abolished after the French Revolution, until the 1870s all culinary training continued to occur within the confines of work establishments.
From 1870 through 1900 a dedicated group of French chefs
worked to create a professional culinary school to replace the traditional apprenticeship program.
Prior 1780's
Southern Alberta Institute of Technology.
Name two schools in Alberta which
provide culinary students with
training & apprenticships...
of the Kitchen

Prior to the French Revolution there were
37. After the French Revolution, both guild merged and the title Chef de______________ emerged.
What is the difference between
a Cook and a Chef?
2 volunteers
Tools and Equipment
Range Cooking Tops
______________ electric or gas. These tops are the fastest to heat and can be turned off after a short use. Space is limited to one pan per burner.

______________ burners are covered with a steel plate. The top can support relatively heavy weight and a lot of space is available.

______________ burners are covered with a heavy steel plate. This can suport many heavy pots and pans. Takes a long time to heat up and cool. Different parts of the plate can work at different temperatures.

_______________ does not become hot. Induction cooking works by magnetically agitating the molecules in steel and iron cookware so the cook ware becomes hot. Much less energy is used and lost as a result. This means the kitchen will stay cooler.
Open Element
Open Element
Flat Top
Flat Top
Heavy Flat Top
Heavy Flat Top
Induction Top
Induction Top

8 oven types
1) Conventional Ovens
operate simply by heating air in the enclosed space.
contain fans that circulate the air and distribute the heat rapidly through out the interior.
forced air, foods cook more quickly at lower temperatures.

2) Revolving Ovens
large chambers containing many shelves or trays on an attachment like a Ferris wheel.
eliminates the problem of hot spots or uneven baking, because the mechanism rotates the food through out the oven.

3) Slow Cook and Hold Ovens-
designed specifically for low temperature roasting.
sensitive controls make it possible to cook at steady reliable temperatures,

4) Combination Steamer Oven
can be operated in three modes: convection oven, convection steamer, and with both as a high humidity oven.

5) Barbecue Oven or Smoke Ovens
just like conventional ovens, with one difference, they product wood smoke, which surrounds the food and adds flavor while cooking or roasting.

6) Infrared or Reconstituting Ovens
contain quartz tubes or plates that generate intense infrared heat.
they bring large quantities of food to serving temperature in a short time.

7) Wood Burning Ovens
the food absorbs some of the appealing wood smoke flavor and aroma’s.

8) Microwave Ovens
special tubes which generate microwave radiation, which created heat inside of the food.
2 types of broilers
1) Heavy duty broilers- use very high heat, and consume vast quantities of energy. Cooking temperature is adjusted by raising or lowering the grate the holds the food.

2) Salamanders- are used for browning or glazing the tops of items, they may also be used for broiling small quantities of foods. Salamanders are usually mounted above the range.
Grills-used for the same cooking operation at broilers, except the heat source is below the grid rather than above it.

Griddles- flat smooth, heated surfaces on which food is cooked directly. Pancakes, French Toast, hamburgers, and other meat, egg, and potato items are foods most commonly cooked on the griddle.

Rotisseries- cook meats and other foods by turning them slowly in front of an electric or gas powered heating element.
3 types of deep fat fryers
1) Standard Deep fryers- are powered by either gas or electricity, and have thermostatic controls that maintain fat at pre-set temperatures.
2) Automatic Fryers-removes food from the fat automatically after a preset time.
3) Pressure Fryers- Are covered fry kettles that fry foods under pressure, foods cook faster, even at lower fat temperatures.
Steam Kettles- are sometimes referred to as stock pot, not only heated on the bottom, but on all sides as well. Steam kettles heat quickly and have more uniform or controllable heat than pots on the range.

1) Paddle- used for general mixing.
2) Wire Whip- used for beating cream and eggs.
3) Dough Hook- used for kneading yeast doughs
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
1. Whip attachment
2. Paddle attachment
3. Dough hook
Which attachment would you use for...
cold butter?
egg whites?
bread dough?
breaking fingers?
breaking arms?
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