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Indian Independence Movement

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Jennifer Li

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Indian Independence Movement

Presented by:
Joie Chow
Jennifer Li
Mark Mayhew
Kyle Morrissey
Mariya Setko
Danielle Sunley The Indian Independence Movement Overview The Indian Independence Act of 1947 History
Violent Protests
Non-Violent Protests
Indian Independence Act Background Violent Protests Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) Non-Violent Protests legislation passed and enacted by the British parliament
officially declared the independence of India
partitioned British India into 2 separate countries
mainly Muslim north would become Pakistan, and the predominantly Hindu south would become the Republic of India
enabled the representatives of India and Pakistan to frame their own Constitutions A Super Timeline 1757 1858 1772 The English East India Company founded in 1600
1612: granted rights to establish a trading post in the port of Surat, India
the Company expanded until... decline of Mughal empire = British able to seek firm foothold in Indian politics
Battle of Plassey: East India Company's Bengal army under Robert Clive defeats Indian ruler Siraj ud-Daulah
Company finally establishes a firm hold on Bengal region of India, and goes onto establishing military control over all states in India British rule in India increases as they defeat Indian rulers in series of wars
has political and military control over Indian affairs through subsidiary alliances As a result... Western-educated Hindu elites sought to abolish controversial but traditional practices (caste system, child marriage)
British grew increasingly abusive of local customs
Parties in mosques, dancing to music of regimental bands on the terrace of Taj Mahal
Using whips to navigate through crowded bazaars
Abuse and mistreatment of civilians Note: Until the Indian Independence Act in 1947, India was known as the "Indian Subcontinent" which consists of modern day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh Government of India Act of 1858 Company was deprived of its involvement in ruling India
territory was transferred to British government preeminent leader of non-violent civil disobedience movement
trained in law in London, England
returned to India in 1915 --> set about organizing peasants to protest excessive land taxes
reached out to all religious groups; accepted both Hindu and Muslim
Ahimsa : nonviolence 1920-1922: non-cooperation movement January 26: Declaration of Independence of India "Quit India" Revolt 1920 1930 1942 1st movement of non-violence
aimed to resist British occupation in India, without taking up arms
protestors refused to buy British goods
support for local business
WHY? -->
exportation of Indian goods to Britain
factory goods > artisans
resentment of British Army early political leaders could not break down the socio/political structure of British rule
Gandhi subverted economic structure
rallied the "common people" complete self rule for British empire demanded
Indian National Committee
Independence day in India
First "cry" of independence 400 km Salt March INC took direct action, advocating for tax resistance and non-violent protest against British salt tax
Gandhi reached even the lowest caste of Indians with his protest
women
salt used as a symbol of universality and accessibility, banned by British 1765 Economics... Company established capital in Calcutta
reformed the divided system of government
created single rule across all of British India
Warren Hastings appointed first Governor-General The End of Company Rule in India alliance between dominant nation and nation it dominates
introduced by Marquess Wellesley
by late 18th century, India was left with great
number of small and weak states
accepted British military presence
Indian rulers surrendered control of foreign
affairs to British
economic method of indirect rule British Raj Benefits Disadvantages British crown rule 1858-1947 ended rule of East India Company
Struggle prior to rule is referred to as the “Great Rebellion”, “Indian Mutiny”, and “The First War of Indian Independence”
Raj never encompassed entire land mass of sub-continent
2/5 continued to be independently governed by over 560 large and small principalities
Some rulers of said principalities fought against British in great rebellion, but under Britain entered into treaties of mutual cooperation
Elites would serve as political protection against “nationalist storms”
British criticized Hindu caste system, but were deeply divided by class themselves Second "cry" of independence
Gandhi launched a civil disobedience movement
mass protest advocating an "orderly British withdrawal
"Do or Die"
British arrested 100 000 Indians
Result: united India against British
After WWII, the call to Indian freedom could no longer be ignored by International committees Mughal Revenue System inherited by British in 1765
Peasants/land cultivators --> Zamindar --> Mughal emperor (controlled most of continent
1765 control: Zamindars became a "Board of Revenue" collectors --> Heavy tax on all goods (salt) Southern India: Thomas Munro
Ryotwari system
communism
"progressive"
rented land --> reached even the lowest rung of peasants
promote efficient agriculture and eliminate class system
peasants couldn't meet rent; local landlords did not want to let go of control Trade
American revolution lead to a lack of cotton imports; demand for Indian cotton soared
China: Opium exports from India since the ban of importation and consumption in China Free trade
Ended seven hundred year old Muslim rule
Within 10 years of British takeover, country pacified
Lower ran administrative jobs taken by English-speaking Hindus
The mutiny was caused by issues regarding the conditions of service and the inclusion of animal fat in bullet cartridges
Mangel Pandey tried to instigate a rebellion among his peers
- None of the other Indian soliders offered assistance in restraint
- Was tried and hung for treason
Many of his peers saw this as considerably harsh punishment and began fighting back against the British
Fighting continued for one year, with the last major battle being fought at Gwalior
Guerrilla forces fought until 1859 led by Tatya Tope but no major gains were had
After these revolts, the East India Company handed over power to the British Empire
A number of groups, mostly originating out of southern India, fought against the British from 1905-1940
Used a variety of tactics including terrorist bombings and political assassinations
Attempted to fight back against the british in the midst of WWI, limited success
Ground work for the INA in WWII
Led by Netaji subhas Chandra Bose, the Indian National Army was forced to fight against the Axis powers in WWII
Upset with this development, Bose tried to incite rebellion but
was quickly arrested
Upon escaping, he and a group of forces fled to the
axis powers and allied with Japan in an attempt to fight
British rule
Tried to fight alongside the Japanese to get to India and
start a rebellion, but this plan ultimately failed
When the japanese surrendered, the INA was sent
back to India and executed for treason
When the populace heard of the executions, mutinies
broke out in all sections of the British Indian Armed Forces,
with the major two being the Christmas Island mutiny and
the Naval mutiny
The British government began to see the armed forces as more of a threat then a benefit, a large factor in finally giving Independence to India Mutiny of 1857 Revolutionary Activities Indian National Army India was left impoverished
Deindustrialization and destruction of rural economy
Intolerance - tried to convert them to Christianity
Great Rebellion created racial chasm between Indians and Briton
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