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Fahrenheit 451 CPT

A prezi outlining the literary parallels between Fahrenheit 451 and other great works of literature
by

CP Tee

on 5 June 2014

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Transcript of Fahrenheit 451 CPT

Fahrenheit 451
By: Ray Bradbury
On August 22, 1920 in Waukegan, Illinois Leonard Spaulding and Esther
(Moberg) Bradbury had a son whom they named Raymond (Ray) Douglas Bradbury. Ray went on to marry Marguerite Susan McClure in September of 1947, at the age of 26. They then had four daughters: Susan, Ramona, Bettina, and Alexandra. He was a resident of Los Angeles, California for most of his life. Bradbury lived to be 91 when he died on June 5, 2012.








Summary of Part One
Summary of Part Two
Summary of Part Three
Literary Terms
Novel Terms
Glossary
Societal Connections
Character Connections
News Connections
Asylum
- A shelter from danger or persecution; an institution for the mentally ill (31)
"They took him screaming off to the
asylum
.
"


Bestial
- Resembling a beast; showing little sensibility (58)
"Any man who can take a TV wall apart and put it back together again,
and most men can nowadays, is happier than any man who tries to slide? Rule, measure, and equate the universe, which just won't be measured or equated without making man feel
bestial
and lonely."

Cacophony
- A harsh
mixture of sounds (42)
"You drowned in music
and pure
cacophony
."

Cataract
- A medical condition of the eye, resulting in it becoming opaque (15)
"Montag moved back to his own house, left the window wide, checked Mildred, tucked the covers about her carefully, and then lay down with the moonlight on his cheek-bones and on the frowning ridges in his brow, with the moonlight distilled in each eye to form a silver
cataract
there."

Convolution
- A complexity and intricacy or a twisted shape (159)
"Grandfather’s been dead for all these years, but if you lifted my skull, by God, in the
convolutions
of my brain you’d find the big ridges of his thumbprint."

Dentifrice
- A tooth-cleaning compound (81)
"Denham’s
Dentifrice
."

Dictum
- An authoritative explanation (55)
"There was no
dictum
,
no declaration, no censorship, to start with, no!
"

Drone
- A low, continuous, humming noise (29)
"The flutter of cards, motion of hands, of eyelids, the
drone
of the time-voice in the firehouse ceiling ...one thirty-five."

Ecclesiastes
- A book of the bible that discusses the futility of life and how to be a God-fearing person (152)
"The book of
Ecclesiastes
would be fine."

Jargon
- Special words or expressions used by particular groups of people (39)
"She talked to him for what seemed a long while and she talked about this and she talked about that and it was only words, like the words he had heard once in a nursery at a friend's house, a two-year-old child building word patterns, talking
jargon
, making pretty sounds in the air."

Insidious
- Intended to entrap or entice (88)
"‘It’s an
insidious
plan, if I do say so myself.’ Faber glanced nervously at his bedroom door."

Linguist
- A speaker of several languages (89)
"Aren’t there professors like yourself, former writers, historians,
linguists
?"
Heresy
- A belief or opinion contrary to orthodox religious doctrine (37)
"A man named Latimer said that to a man named Nicholas Ridley, as they were being burnt alive at Oxford, for
heresy
, on October 16, 1555."

Mausoleum
– A large burial chamber or building, typically above the ground (9)
"It was like coming into the cold marbled room of a
mausoleum
after the moon had set."
Melancholy
- A tendency to appear gloomy or depressed (13)
"And the men with the cigarettes in their straight-lined mouths, the men with the eyes of puff-adders, took up their load of machine and tube, their case of liquid
melancholy
and the slow dark sludge of nameless stuff, and strolled out the door."
Nomadic
- Migratory; always moving (54)
"Towns turn into motels, people in
nomadic
surges from place to place, following the moon tides, living tonight in the room where you slept this noon and I the night before."
Odious
- Extremely unpleasant and repulsive (33)
"Beatty, Stoneman, and Black ran up the sidewalk, suddenly
odious
and fat in the plump fireproof slickers."
Olfactory
- Of or relating to the sense of smell (22)
"At night when things got dull, which was every night, the men slid down the brass poles, and set the ticking combinations of the olfactory system of the Hound and let loose rats in the firehouse area-way, and sometimes chickens, and sometimes cats that would have to be drowned anyway, and there would be betting to see which the Hound would seize first."
Pantomime
- To act without words, using only gestures and body expressions (44)
"He could only
pantomime
, hoping she would turn his way and see him."
Praetor
- An ancient Rome magistrate (88)
"They’re Caesar’s
Praetorian
Guard, whispering as the parade roars down the avenue, ‘Remember, Caesar, thou art mortal.’"
Proclivity
- A natural inclination; the tendency to perform an action (30)
"Were all firemen picked then for their looks as well as their
proclivities
?"
Ravenous
- Extremely hungry; to have a great need (38)
"His hands were
ravenous
."
Scurry
- To move about in a hurried fashion (23)
"But now at night he lay in his bunk, face turned to the wall, listening to whoops of laughter below and the piano-string
scurry
of rat feet, the violin squeaking of mice, and the great shadowing, motioned silence of the Hound"

Stagnant
- Showing no activity; very sluggish and dull (40-41)
"He tried to count how many times she swallowed and he thought of the visit from the two zinc-oxide-faced men with the cigarettes in their straight-lined mouths and the electronic-eyed snake winding down into the layer upon layer of night and stone and
stagnant
spring water, and he wanted to call out to her, how many have you taken TONIGHT!"

Stolid
-
Revealing little to no emotion (1)
"With his symbolic helmet numbered 451 on his
stolid
head, and his eyes all orange flame with the thought of what came next, he flicked the igniter and the house jumped up in a gorging fire that burned the evening sky red and yellow and black."

Stratum
- One of several layers that are arranged on top of each other in a parallel fashion (12)
"The woman on the bed was no more than a hard
stratum
of marble they had reached."

Suffuse
- To spread over or through something (78)
"In the hall Mildred’s face was
suffused
with excitement."

Trajectory
- The path followed by a moving object (24)
"It has a
trajectory
we decide for it."

The Isla Vista Shootings

The Isla Vista Shootings were a series of shootings that took place in Isla Vista, California, on
May 23, 2014. The assailant, Elliot Rodger, shot six people and injured thirteen more before committing
suicide. In-depth analysis of the attack showed that the reason for Rodger’s killing spree was his belief
that women despised him and ignored him. He victimized women because they did not provide him with
the love or sexual encounters he believed he deserved. Every society, real or fictional, has destructive
characters; today, in our modern day society, Rodger is ours. His actions deconstruct and abolish the
general principles that make an efficient and practical society. The repercussions of his actions were
significant- he prompted the creation of #YesAllWomen, a hashtag on Twitter meant to promote
equality and safety for women. Rodger can easily be compared with the destructive characters from
many pieces of literature: Bob Ewell from
To Kill a Mockingbird
, Matthew Harrison Brady from
Inherit
the Wind
, Shylock from
The Merchant of Venice
, Hilly Holbrook from
The Help
, and Captain Beatty from
Fahrenheit 451
. All of these characters lack the proper ethics and morals and prevent their societies
from evolving and changing. Rodger’s killing of six people in the name of his personal war against
women destroyed progress made by the feminist movement to create a balanced, fair world for women.
Since he halted the evolution of his society, Rodger can be considered a destructive character and his
story parallels those from other literary works discussed in this Prezi.
Ray Bradbury did not have a very spectacular upbringing. He attended schools
in Waukegan and Los Angeles, which would become his home for the rest of his life. He
was independent when it came to politics and was a Unitarian Universalist, which is a
liberal, North American religion. Throughout his life he found an interest in oil and
water colour paintings as well as Mexican artifacts. These slightly unconventional
hobbies are the extent of the intrigue in Bradbury's pre-writing life.

.
Bradbury began his writing career in the 1940s, during this time he wrote for
multiple magazines. It was through one of these magazines that Bradbury came into
contact with the man that published one of his first stories "Who Knocks?", August
Derleth. Derleth also encouraged Bradbury to compile his stories into a book, this
book later came to be known as
Dark Carnival
. Bradbury's first major science fiction
publication (the genre he is most often associated with) was another collection of
short stories called "The Martian Chronicles" and was released in 1950. He was one of
the first authors to "combine the concepts of science fiction with a sophisticated
prose style" (Encyclopedia of World Biography). The award winning
Fahrenheit 451

was Bradbury's first novel and was actually a short story that he later expanded into
novel form. His other novels include
Something Wicked This Way Comes
and
Death is a
Lonely Business
. The latter of which stars the protagonist of "Dandelion Wine", a short
story by Bradbury which was the other medium he is famous for.


Ray Bradbury's literary achievements are staggering. His earliest major award
was The O. Henry Prize in 1947 which he would also win again the next year. He won
awards such as the Benjamin Franklin award for his short stories and awards such as
the Commonwealth Club of California gold medal for his novels. He was inducted into
the Science Fiction Hall of Fame in 1970 and was even nominated for an Academy
Award for the short film "Icarus Montgolfier Wright". Outside of awards, Bradbury was
a member of both the Writers Guild of America and the Science Fantasy Writers of
America. Ray Bradbury's career was absolutely incredible
Many parallels can be observed between the societies of
The Merchant of Venice
and
Fahrenheit 451
. Despite there being distinct variations in their respective ideologies and principles, the cultures of these two works of literature share multiple similarities. The primary conclusions to be drawn from the connections henceforth are that both the societies share materialistic tendencies, are highly conformist, and feign justice.
Insatiability is a quality that can be applied to most people in any given society; however, it is extremely prevalent in the citizens of Venice and the characters of
Fahrenheit 451
. In
The Merchant of Venice
, Shylock undoubtedly demonstrates the qualities of a miser. He values his gold more than almost anything, including his daughter: “Two thousand ducats in that, and other precious, precious jewels. I would my daughter were dead at my foot, and the jewels in her ear!” (iii.i.82-84) Shylock essentially would pardon the death of his daughter if it meant his money would be returned to him. The preoccupation with objects is also seen in the first suitors to Portia and their selection of caskets: Morocco and Aragon choose the valuable gold and silver caskets, respectively, instead of the seemingly worthless lead casket. The society of
Fahrenheit 45
1 is equally concentrated on material goods and consumerism. Mildred, Guy Montag’s wife, is shown to be constantly engrossed talking to the family in her “walls”- giant television screens that build the parlour. The first instance of Mildred’s materialism was shown in her desire to have a fourth wall put into place, despite the fact that it was “one-third of [Montag’s] yearly pay” and the third wall “was put in only two months ago” (18). The society in
Fahrenheit 451
is concerned with electronics and technology, not unlike our current one today. Although the people of the respective societies yearn for different objects of value, the blatant materialism that connects them validates how similar the societies are.
Another similarity of the two societies is the forceful conformation of their citizens. In
The Merchant of Venice
, there is an underlying anti-Semitic attitude that applied to both the majority of the characters and the audience the play was intended for. The hatred of Jews was apparent to some degree in every non-Jewish character, most notably Antonio and Gratiano. While
The Merchant of Venice
centred on racism, the conformist society in
Fahrenheit 451
was instead directed toward knowledge, more specifically the lack thereof. The public in
Fahrenheit 451
were afraid to think for themselves, and as such allowed the government to do it for them. This resulted in the banning of books and the glorified worshipping of television- a media source that could be easily controlled. By regulating what their citizens knew, the government was able to successfully force the people into a single, unanimous mindset. Both the societies in these literary works enforce and reinforce specific ideals and doctrines, thus exhibiting another way in which they are similar.
The final connection that can be made between the societies of
The Merchant of Venice
and
Fahrenheit 451
is how they mutually feign justice. Instead of allowing their citizens to execute their own forms of justice, the societies take over with a warped, idealistic form of justice that in hindsight can be seen is not fair at all. Shylock had created a fair bond with Antonio that should have resulted in the extraction of a pound of Antonio’s flesh; however, the court case instead ended with Shylock being prosecuted for attempting to kill another man. The society falsely justified letting “the party ‘gainst the which he doth contrive/Shall seize one half his goods; the other half/Comes to the privy coffer of the state”(vi.i.351-353) because it was prejudiced against Shylock. In
Fahrenheit 451
, justice is only attempted to control the public, lest they attempt something similar. Due to this, the supposed justice likely is not fair at all. When Montag is being chased down, the media shows the killing of another man on television, pretending that it is Montag who died. The public then believe Montag was punished, and that if they do the same thing they will be likewise criminalized. In reality, it was a random, unlucky individual who had done nothing but satisfy the government’s need for a scapegoat. Both societies in these stories employ a twisted and cruel version of justice to control their citizens. This shows how similar the societies in
The Merchant of Venice
and
Fahrenheit 451
really are.
Character Connections
When the societies in two stories share so many similarities, it is not unlikely for certain characters to share the traits forced upon them by those societies. This is the case for many parallel characters in
The Merchant of Venice
and
Fahrenheit 451
. More connections can come from the perspectives of the characters as well as their roles in the story.
As demonstrated in the connections between the materialism of the two societies, both Shylock and Mildred are characters that are largely influenced by their avarice. Shylock is a usurer with high rates of interest, the obvious intention being to get richer. His greed was only overpassed by his desire for revenge; however, it is still a very distinct part of his persona and it serves as the underlying reason for many of his choices and actions. Mildred, on the other hand, is obsessed with technology and objects. She loves her car and her television, and is content to spend all of her time driving or watching senseless television shows. She is constantly annoying Guy to buy her more, even when it appears that they may not have the money to afford such luxuries. Both Mildred and Shylock and greedy and materialistic, with this trait being largely encouraged by the society in which they live in.
More parallels can be drawn from the characters of Clarisse and Shylock. Both of these characters live in a society with immoral principles and ethics. The similarities are seen in the fact that both of these characters are affected personally by the results of those principles and ethics, and are highly aware of them. Shylock, being a Jew, is persecuted constantly and isolated because he lives in a prejudiced society. Clarisse is also isolated because she shouldn’t be aware of how her society functions. She is prejudiced against because she questions the way that her society functions rather than just accepting it. The first time Montag meets Clarisse, he makes the uneasy observation that she “thinks too many things” (6), thus supporting the fact that Clarisse is different and unusual from normal people in that society. Shylock and Clarisse are both dissimilar from the average characters of their stories; therefore they are similar to each other.
Characters can be connected by their traits and characteristics, but they can also be defined by the roles they play in their story. Using this logic, a connection can be made between Faber and Bassanio, who serve as two loyal counterparts to their respective protagonists, Montag and Antonio. Initially, Faber provides a source of background knowledge and information for Montag. Later in the story, Montag begins to increasingly rely on Faber for his choices and actions. This support is highlighted when Montag is being chased by the authorities and Faber provides Montag with a safe place to stay and a solid plan for escaping. Without Faber, it is unlikely that Montag could have accomplished anything that he did, nor escaped the consequences of his actions. Similarly in
The Merchant of Venice
Antonio is greatly helped by Bassanio during the court case. It is thanks to Bassanio’s love for Portia that she was able to come and salvage the court trial. The actions of Faber and Bassanio literally saved the lives of their friends, thus proving their similarity.
Thematic connections

The

Merchant of Venice
and
Fahrenheit 451
have many connecting themes integrated into their stories and characters. Three themes that can be noted within the two literary works are isolation, destructive characters, and prejudice. When considering isolation, many character examples can be thought of: Shylock from
The Merchant of Venice
, and Faber and Clarisse from
Fahrenheit 451
. However, isolation can also be applied to more abstract ideas- in this case, the isolation of knowledge in favour of ignorance and misunderstanding. This is applicable in
Fahrenheit 451
, where any forms of literature are banned and the information stored in those books is only remembered by the few people who cared to read them, as well as
The Merchant of Venice
, where the general public is uneducated and ignorant about Jews. Knowledge is isolated in both stories, and any characters that are aware of this are also isolated. Both
The Merchant of Venice
and
Fahrenheit 451
have their fair share of destructive characters. The most blatant in each story are Shylock and Captain Beatty. Shylock can be considered a destructive character because his desire for vengeance shifted his moral compass to a point where he was willing to murder Antonio because he felt victimized by him.
Fahrenheit 451
has a particularly destructive character as well- Captain Beatty. He is the ruthless fire chief and is Montag’s boss. Beatty is ironically well-versed in literature, despite his job encouraging the annihilation of it. Furthermore, he uses his knowledge of it to fuel his cruel lectures and discussions in an attempt to make himself appear more frightening and controlling. Both Shylock and Beatty serve as antagonists for their stories, a simple reason for why they would be destructive characters. Prejudice is another common theme between
The Merchant of Venice
and
Fahrenheit 451
. Following along with the theme of isolation, both societies inflict prejudice upon those who are isolated. In
The Merchant of Venice
, Jews are prejudiced against because the society is anti-Semitic. In
Fahrenheit 451
, Clarisse and Faber are prejudiced against because they have a heightened awareness about the world around them. Both groups of people are treated unfairly in their society, demonstrating once more how prejudice and other themes are congruent in these two works of literature.

Societal Connections
Thematic Connections

Character Connections
There is one very clear connection between the societies of Harper Lee's
To Kill a Mockingbird
and Ray Bradbury's
Fahrenheit 451
. That connection is the fact that the people in the society have the mindset of "guilty until proven innocent". This is apparent in
Fahrenheit 451
whenever the firemen are alerted to a call. Whenever they arrive at a house they destroy property and pour kerosene into the house before they even find the books. In
To Kill a Mockingbird
the people of Maycomb treat an accusation of a black person as if it were a conviction. This is shown very clearly when the lynch mob arrives at the jail to kill Tom Robinson before the trial is even over, as well as when the jury convicts Robinson even after Atticus proved beyond a reasonable doubt that he was innocent. Despite being in different eras and having different issues, the societies of
Fahrenheit 451
and
To Kill a Mockingbird
are actually quite similar.
There are several themes common to both
To Kill a Mockingbird
and
Fahrenheit 451
. Two themes that play a significant role in both stories are justice and isolation. Justice is prevalent in both works of literature in many ways.
To Kill a Mockingbird
, the court system has several obvious flaws: the jury is made of predominantly white males, thus leading to biased trials and prejudiced verdicts. The “justice” of the society is demonstrated most clearly when Tom Robinson is declared guilty even when Atticus has provided sufficient proof verifying Robinson’s innocence. In
Fahrenheit 451
, justice comes at a great price. In their society, books are banned and the possession of them results in having your house burned down. This enactment of justice is immoral and unethical, which can be seen when a house is burned down with a woman still inside it. The loss of human life is not an issue for the firefighters: “These fanatics
always try suicide; the pattern’s familiar” (36). The destruction of the human condition through justice is a concept applicable to both of these novels. Furthermore,
To Kill a Mockingbird
and
Fahrenheit 451
share the theme of isolation. There are several characters in both works that are isolated due to their societies and perspectives on life. In
To Kill a Mockingbird
, Boo Radley and Atticus Finch are isolated, largely for the fact that they are both notably different than others in their society. In
Fahrenheit 451
, Faber, Clarisse, and later Montag are isolated because they have come to realize the issues and truths of the laws in their society.
Fahrenheit 451
and
To Kill a Mockingbird
are akin to one another because they share the common themes of justice and isolation.
Both Guy Montag and Atticus Finch are similar in the regard that they peruse what they believe in despite the fact that it is frowned upon in their society. In
To Kill a Mockingbird
, Atticus defends Tom Robinson, a negro, even though his town of Maycomb is highly racist and disapproves of his actions. Similarly, in
Fahrenheit 451
, books are illegal and owning books is immoral as well. Despite this, Montag saves some books from fires and is eventually persecuted for it.

Both Guy Montag and Miss Skeeter are the protagonists of their stories. They also begin their novels as conformists to the society in which they live. Both however change their views on society and attempt minor revolutions. They also turn their backs on their families' traditions in favour of what they feel is right. At the end of each story, Montag and Miss Skeeter end up happy yet in some way alone.
Aibileen and Faber are the old and wise confidantes to the younger, more ambitious protagonists of Miss Skeeter and Montag. Beyond their basic roles in the plot, Faber and Aibileen are similar characters. They are both characters that have experienced a lifetime of oppression that has made them passionate about the cause brought to them by the protagonists. However, in both cases the oppression that made them so passionate has also made them very reluctant to help, but eventually do. Even their jobs are similar in that Faber was an English professor before books were outlawed and Aibileen left her job as a maid to pursue a career in writing.
Both characters, Clarisse McClellan and Miss Celia seem to live oblivious to the hardships within their society. Unlike Miss Celia, Clarisse is later revealed to be very aware of her society's problems and simply chooses to make the best of it. They are both young, though Clarisse is younger, and almost overly happy. Miss Celia however, is revealed to only be pretending to be happy due to her multiple miscarriages. Because of these things, Clarisse and Miss Celia are actually the most similar in the way that they are both initially portrayed as very simple characters that are then expanded upon into much deeper ones.
Societal Connections
The societies of
Fahrenheit 451
and
The Help
seem to be very different on the surface.
The Help
takes place in the 1960s and therefore has the technology associated with that era. On the other hand
Fahrenheit 451
takes place in a dystopian future that is not given an exact date however it is inferred to be the future do to there being advanced technology and references to history, meaning it is Earth. However looking past the time period and technology, the way that these two societies act is quite similar. In both societies people are attacked and even killed for being different. Another similarity is that most of the people in the society either support the assault and murder or simply ignore it. These societies are different on the surface but the same underneath.
Thematic Connections
Both
The Help
and
Fahrenheit 451
deal with the topic of isolation and they both focus on the theme of rebelling against the family's traditional state of mind. This theme is highlighted in the characters Montag and Miss Skeeter. With Miss Skeeter the rebellion is made clearer because she often says how she does not like the way her parents, more so her mother than her father, treat the black community. Guy Montag turning against his family is more subtle because it is only mentioned once that he is the latest in a line of firemen in the Montag family. The end result of both these two characters after rebelling against their families is personal satisfaction despite losing the people they once considered close. They seemingly stand by and are proud of their choice to break away from what they felt was an unjust mindset.
The Tyger
Poetry
Richard Cory
Allusion
A reference to a well-known
person, place, or thing.

In Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451,
Bradbury utilizes many allusions that
test the reader's prior knowledge to
establish understanding and depth into
the story. Throughout Bradbury’s short
story, he utilizes many references to the
bible and other great books or writers.
“‘Nothing. I thought I had part of the Book of Ecclesiastes and maybe a little of Revelation,
But I haven’t even that now.’” (pg. 144)
Anaphora
A repetition of a phrase or an expression
consecutively within paragraphs.

In Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451,
anaphora is repeatedly used to illustrate
monotony and boredom.

“One drop of rain. Clarisse. Another drop.
Mildred. A third. The uncle. A fourth.
The fire tonight. One, Clarisse. Two, Mildred.
Three, uncle. Four, fire. One, Mildred, two, Clarisse.” (pg15)
Dramatic Monologue
A speech in which a character tells a lot about
himself/ herself by talking to himself/herself or
to another character

Dramatic monologues are commonly used by protagonist Guy Montag and Faber, to allow thereader to properly grasp these two characters’ complex personalities.
“‘It’s been a long time. I’m not a religious man. But it’s been a long time.’ Faber turned the pages, stopping here and there to read. ‘It’s as good as I remember. Lord, how they’ve changed it in our ‘parlors’ these days. Christ is one of the ‘family’ now. I often wonder if God recognizes His own son the way we’ve dressed him up, or is it dressed him down? He’s a regular peppermint stick now, all sugar- crystal and saccharine when he isn’t making veiled references to certain commercial products that every worshiper absolutely needs.’ Faber sniffed the book. ‘Do you know that books smell like nutmeg or some spice from a foreign land? I loved to smell them when when I was a boy. Lord there were a lot of lovely books once, before we let them go.’ Faber turned the pages. ‘Mr. Montag, you are looking at a coward. I saw the way things were going, a long time back. I said nothing. I’m one
of the innocents who could have spoken and out when no one would listen to the ' guilty,’ but I did not speak and thus became guilty myself. And when finally they
set the structure to burn the books, using the firemen, I grunted a few times
and subsided, for there were no others grunting or yelling with me, by
then. Now, it’s too late.’ Faber closed the Bible. ‘Well--suppose you
tell me why you came here?’” (pg 77-78)
Imagery
The use of words that appeal to each of the five senses. The five individual senses include visual, olfactory, gustatory, auditory, and tactile.

Bradbury uses imagery to allow the reader to be completely enveloped in the storyline of the
text, by presenting descriptions that almost seem life-like.
“There must have been a billion leaves on the land; he waded in them, a dry river smelling of hot cloves and warm dust. And the other smells! There was a smell like a cut potato from all the land, raw and cold and white from having the moon on it
most of the night. There was smell like pickles from a bottle
and a smell like parsley on the table at home...He put down
his hand and felt a weed rise up like a child brushing him.”
(pg. 138)
Metaphor
A comparison of two things without using the
words "like"or "as".

Similarly to simile, a metaphor again connects and grounds the reader to a familiar idea for enhanced comprehension.
“...the alley opened out onto a wide empty thoroughfare ten lanes wide...It was a vast stage without scenery, inviting him to run across, easily seen in the blazing illumination, easily caught,easily shot down.” (pg. 118)
Repetition
The repeating or reoccurring of a sound, vowel, consonant, or word.

Similarly to anaphora, repetition is used to enforce the boredom felt surrounding a specific topic, idea, or action. Bradbury successfully uses repetition to allow the reader to understand the society atmosphere and tone.
“‘...one
th
irty-five,
Th
ursday morning, November 4
th
, ...one
th
irty-six...one
th
irty-seven A.M. ...’” (29)
Simile
A comparison of two things
using the words "like" or "as".

Similes are used to activate the prior knowledge of the reader by connecting the text to known objects for better understanding.
“There was a hiss like a great mouthful of spittle banging a red-hot stove” (pg. 113)
Symbolism
The use of an image or a collection of images to represent a thing, idea, or quality.

Symbolism is expertly used by Bradbury to allow the reader to properly grasp and ground an
idea by using symbols to allow the reader to connect to the text.
“Once as a child he had sat upon a yellow dune by the sea in the middle of the blue and hot summer day, trying to fill a sieve with sand, because some cruel cousin had said, “Fill this sieve and you’ll get a dime!”...the silly thought came to him, if you read fast and read all maybe some of the sand will stay in the sieve.” (pg. 74)
Fahrenheit 451
The Tyger
can be related to
Fahrenheit 451
through fire. Fire can be related to the physical and moral aspects of the tiger in the poem. Physically the tiger is beautiful and fierce; morally it is powerful and horrific. Fire is considered beautiful, but it is also destructive and can be used for morally horrific acts. Throughout the novel, Montag and the other fellow firemen use fire to burn books and houses, thus highlighting its destructive nature and showing its horrific consequences. Similar to how a reader of
Fahrenheit 451
realises that the burning throughout the novel is appalling, in The Tyger questions such as “And what shoulder, & what art. / Could twist the sinews of thy heart?” (9-10), leads the reader to also realise the cruel nature of the tiger. Another way fire connects both works is through the fire imagery that is present. In the poem, such lines as “Tyger! Tyger! burning bright” (1), “Burnt the fire of thine eyes?” (6), and “In what furnace was thy brain?” (14) use visual and auditory imagery to relate the tiger to fire. Likewise, in
Fahrenheit 451
, one of the main recurring symbols is fire. The use of fire to convey ideas in both
Fahrenheit 451
and
The Tyger
bridges the two.
The Merchant of Venice
The Tyger
is a poem that questions the existence of a strong and fierce deity. Primarily, what was asked of the tiger was where he came from and what his purpose was; by the end, the question was why he did what he did.
The Tyger
can relate to
The Merchant of Venice
because both pieces of writing explore the intentions and actions of each of the characters. While the poem focuses explicitly on the tiger deity,
The Merchant of Venice
reveals the objectives of several characters through the use of many literary devices such as asides, dramatic and verbal irony, soliloquies and foreshadowing. While this occurs within several of the plots in
The Merchant of Venice
, it is primarily seen in the bond plot. Shylock reveals his target of getting revenge on Antonio when creating the terms of the bond, but later, he is hit with a recumbentibus courtesy of the judge in the trial. This storyline follows the pattern of the poem - first Shylock answers the questions of who he is and why he does what he does- then he is interrogated and prosecuted for it. In
The Tyger
, this turnabout was evident in the repetition of the first and last stanzas, save for one word: dare. “What immortal hand or eye/Could frame thy fearful symmetry?” (3-4) was the forced rhyme that concluded the first stanza, and was mirrored in the sixth: “What immortal hand or eye/Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?” (23-24). This pair of nearly-identical couplets show the poem’s meaning in questioning the intentions and reasons for its character’s actions. Therefore,
The Tyger
is comparable to
Merchant of Venice
because both mutually reveal and question the behaviours of their respective characters.
To Kill a Mockingbird
The Tyger
can be connected to the novel
To Kill a Mockingbird
through the similarity of format and the through the common theme of loss of innocence. They are both connected through the format of the poem. The poem consists of thirteen questions and one full sentence, conveying the idea of the speaker questioning the existence of “the tyger”. This connects to the character Scout in
To Kill a Mockingbird
due to her inquisitive nature. For instance, in chapter 14 of
To Kill a Mockingbird
Scout asks her father, Atticus, about rape. This mature question asked by the young Scout is similar to the questions asked by the speaker in
The Tyger
where he then comes to the mature realization that “the tyger” is a both terrifying and beautiful force. Another way that
To Kill a Mockingbird
and
The Tyger
can be connected is through the theme of loss of innocence. One of the main themes in
To Kill a Mockingbird
is loss of innocence. For example this loss of innocence is indicated when Jem cries after
Nathan Radley cements the knot hole in the tree that was being used by Boo Radley to communicate with the children. Similarly, in
The Tyger
, the change of “could” to “dare” in the central question signifies that the reader has grown in maturity and has realised the fierce, majestic, danger that is “the tyger”. Therefore parallels can be drawn between both
The Tyger
and
To Kill a Mockingbird
through a common theme, the loss of innocence, and through format.
Fahrenheit 451
The poem
Richard Cory
is a narrative about a well to do man who commits suicide. This situation can be connected to
Fahrenheit 451
through the common theme of deceiving appearances, and similar characters found in both works. In
Richard Cory
, the central character, Richard Cory, puts on an outward appearance of a well kept, well to do man that many people envy. At the end of the poem, however, it is revealed that Richard Cory was, in fact, not happy with his life and he commits suicide. Likewise, in
Fahrenheit 451
, the protagonist, Guy Montag, is a fireman. A fireman is a well respected position within the novel, as they maintain justice by destroying books. However, throughout the novel it is revealed that Montag collects books in secret and for a long time is able to hide them from his wife, superior, and society. Much like Cory in the poem, as he hid his true self from society. Another connection that can be made is a character connection between Richard Cory and Guy Montag. In the poem, Cory is at the height of society and is envied but it is revealed that he is depressed and suicidal. Similarly, in Fahrenheit 451, Montag is well respected because of his profession and seemingly happy until it is revealed through his interactions with Clarisse that he is in fact unhappy with his life and society. Through theme connections and character connections, both
Fahrenheit 451
and
Richard Cory
are similar.
Merchant of Venice

Richard Cory
is a narrative poem about a man called Richard Cory and the repercussions of his life. Richard Cory can be compared to Antonio in
The Merchant of Venice
. Both of these characters are rich and well-liked in their respective societies, and their personas encourage the people around them to work harder in an attempt to become more like them. A noteworthy event in the poem occurs at the end, when it is revealed that Richard Cory committed suicide because so many people were attempting to follow in his footsteps: “So on we worked, and waited for the light… And Richard Cory, one calm summer night/ Went home and put a bullet through his head”. While Antonio did not kill himself in
The Merchant of Venice
, he risked his life in a similar fashion for his friend Bassanio. Due to Antonio’s actions, Bassanio received a chance to woo his love, Portia, which could be considered his “light”. In the meantime, Antonio’s life was on trial because of the bond he made with Shylock. Both Richard Cory and Antonio essentially gave up their lives for the people around them. It is through these characters’ actions that parallels can be made between
Richard Cory
and
The Merchant of Venice
.
To Kill a Mockingbird
The poem
Richard Cory
and the novel
To Kill a Mockingbird
can be connected through the topic of deceiving appearances. In the poem, the central character, Richard Cory, is perceived as a well kept man at the height of society. However, at the end of the poem, it is revealed that Cory was quite depressed and as a result he commits suicide. Similarly, in
To Kill a Mockingbird
, the character Mrs. Dubose can also be associated with deceiving appearances along with Richard Cory. The audience's first impression of her through narrator Jean-Louise (Scout) Finch was that she was "the meanest old woman who ever lived”. Moreover, it was later revealed by Atticus that Mrs. Dubose was suffering from a morphine addiction which she overcame right before her death. Despite being initially perceived as nasty and rude, Atticus declares that “She was the bravest person [he] ever knew”. In this fashion, both
Richard Cory
and
To Kill a Mockingbird
have a character that possesses the quality of a deceiving appearance.
The Help
It can be concluded that the main character of this poem, Richard Cory, is an affluent white male; the poem was written in America during the late Industrial Revolution, a time period in which financial success was an attribute associated to white people. This connects to
The Help
because the majority of the antagonists and one of the protagonists are wealthy and white. Richard Cory could also be paralleled with Hilly Holbrook as they are both happy and well-liked in the beginning, but develop into melancholy characters by the end. In addition,
Richard Cory
pertains to the theme of death, which also appears in
The Help
in the form of Aibileen's son and Skeeter Phelan’s former maid, Constance. The topic of deceiving appearances is present in the poem and novel as well. Richard Cory is portrayed as a man with a very good and happy life, yet despite this he commits suicide. Similarly, in
The Help
, Skeeter and the maids attempt to trick the population of the town because they do not want themselves revealed as the authors of their book.
The Help
and
Richard Cory
can be connected in many ways because they share several common themes.
Inherit the Wind
The poem
Richard Cory
, by Edwin Arlington Robinson, illustrates a well to do man that, according to the townsfolk, commits suicide for no reason. Similarly, Bertram Cates from
Inherit the Wind
, according to the society of the townsfolk, figuratively commits suicide for no reason. Bertram Cates is a schoolteacher, and typically a school teacher is thought of as a role model; if a teacher does anything out of the ordinary, it would be outrageous and unaccepted. Thus, when Cates teaches something that goes against the Bible, which was the doctrine of the society, he destroyed everyone else’s perception of him and in other words, committed suicide. Therefore, due to similar atmosphere’s and societies, Robinson’s
Richard Cory
and
Inherit the Wind
's protagonists can be analyzed together.
Inherit the Wind
William Blake’s
The Tyger
is a poem where the narrator is describing and contemplating a powerful force. In the beginning of the poem, the narrator is questioning if the existence of such a force is possible, and throughout the poem, the narrator is describing all the fearful attributes of the force. Towards the end of the poem, the narrator is no longer dwelling on the existence of this force but rather is wondering why such a force would exist. Similarly, this seeming existence of a powerful force could relate to the societal views of “Heavenly Hillsboro” in
Inherit the Wind
. Many townsfolk in
Inherit the Wind
have been taught and raised in isolation from changing ideas and the changing world and thusly have a fervent belief in the Bible. This isolation leads to the townsfolk believing that any new and unfamiliar idea is unbelievable and destructive, similar to the force in Blake’s
The Tyger
. The Hillsboro residents view any contradiction to the Bible as twisted and could not possibly have been a creation from God. Similarly in line 20 of
The Tyger
, “Did he who made the Lamb make thee?” could be referring to Jesus Christ as the Lamb, and this line reflects the Hillsboro society’s perception of Darwin’s theory of evolution. Therefore, due to the similar viewpoints between Inherit the Wind and The Tyger, parallels can be drawn between the two.
The novel opens with thirty-five year old Guy Montag gleefully burning a building full of books. The narrator then goes on to explain that books are banned by government mandate, and all books found must be burned along with the building they are found in. The book burning is carried out by the Firemen, a job which Montag joyfully excels at. On his way home after the burning, he meets a young, eccentric girl named Clarisse McClellan. The two talk and Montag finds out she is his neighbour; he is also conflicted by the question Clarisse asks him "Are you happy?". He then arrives home to find that his wife Mildred has attempted suicide by consuming an entire bottle of sleeping pills. Medical workers are called and they pump her stomach and clean her blood. Montag sits beside his wife, watching the new blood take effect. He suddenly hears laughter from Clarisse’s house and goes outside to eavesdrop. He hears a voice, probably Clarisse's uncle's; he is talking about the past when men used one another without any qualms. Montag returns home and tries to sleep; but his mind is buzzing with thoughts of Mildred, Clarisse, her uncle, the sleeping tablets, and fire. He finally takes a sleeping tablet himself and slides into a deep slumber. The next morning, Millie remembers nothing of the night before and Montag goes back to work despite the bizarre events from the previous night. On his way into work he sees and has a conversation with Clarisse again. After getting to work, Montag is scared by the mechanical hound in the fire house and then plays cards with his co-workers. Montag and Clarisse continue to speak on Montag's way to and from work for the next few weeks. After speaking with Clarisse, Montag eventually gets curious enough to question his boss, Captain Beatty, about the origin of the Firemen. Beatty tells Montag that it has always been this way and Montag accept the answer but has some doubt remaining. On his next call, Montag is so curious about the books that he actually steals one from the burning house. His internal conflict with his job is greatly strengthened when the lady in the house decides to kill herself in the fire and Beatty lets her. Montag's night worsens when he arrives home, learns that Clarisse had been killed and realises that he nor his wife could remember the first time that he and Mildred had met. Montag then feels sick and decides not to go to work, Beatty then goes to Montag's house and lets him know that he knows that Montag has the book. Beatty then tells the truth about how the firemen started burning books: people were unhappy being given things to think about so the government had what they believed to be the source of deep thought outlawed. Beatty gives Montag an ultimatum: return the stolen book within 24 hours or suffer the consequences. Later, Montag reveals to Millie that he had actually been taking books for about a year. He then convinces Millie to keep his secret and stay with him.
Montag begins reading aloud to Millie, who does not like or understand the books. As Millie and Montag contemplate about their next move, Montag remembers his meeting with a man in the park about a year prior. The man, Faber, a former English professor is the one that causes Montag to first question his life. Snapping back to the present, Montag decides to go to Faber's house in order to make a copy of the Bible that he had stolen. On the way Montag attempts to read but is interrupted by the intercom on the train. This sends Montag into a frenzy, making himself look insane in public. Montag then arrives at Faber's house where he vents his problems and reveals his intensions of copying the book. Faber cannot copy the book and refuses to help Montag destroy the firemen out of fear. Montag then uses his Bible to extort help out of Faber. Faber gives Montag a two way radio ear-piece so he can aid Montag in any situation he may need help with. At home, Montag throws a tantrum after listening to Mildred's friends disrespect their husbands, soldiers, and politicians. He goes so far as to read them a poem from one of his books. The friends are prepared to report Montag when Faber gives him instructions on how to save himself. That night, when he arrives at work, Montag is greeted by Beatty who takes the book that Montag tries to pass off as the one he took. There is then an alarm and the firemen take off. They arrive after an uncomfortable conversation between Montag and Beatty. That is when Montag realises that they are at his house.
Montag watches in disbelief as Mildred runs past him into a car. Beatty informs him that it was in fact Mildred who put in the alarm and that it will be Montag himself that will burn down the house before he is arrested. Montag takes the flamethrower and does as he is told, while being sure not to burn his hiding place for the books. He actually enjoys the torching, being able to destroy the horrible memories. Outside, Beatty waits to arrest Montag but stops and takes the ear-piece from him. In order to protect Faber and make his escape, Montag turns the flamethrower on Beatty, killing him. Then the mechanical hound goes after Montag but also suffers a fiery demise. Montag escapes the other firemen and runs towards Faber's house. Faber gives him new clothes, a drink and instructions on how he could possibly escape the new robotic hound that was tracking him. Montag does as Faber says and heads for the river, once there he sheds his clothes and puts on the new ones in an attempt to change his scent. He sees the Hound one more time upriver but it abandons its search before it locates Montag. Once out of the river, Montag stumbles upon a group of people that end up being like him.These people had also escaped society with their knowledge of books. The leader, Granger, shows Montag a television with the chase for Montag on it; he then explains that because they have officially lost the real Montag the hound will kill a random citizen who they will pass off as Montag. Granger goes on to explain that each of the people in their camp has a book memorized in order to preserve the knowledge without carrying evidence. Then the television announces that the war, which was hinted at multiple times in very little detail throughout the story, has been declared. Bomber jets fly past the group and the city is destroyed in a nuclear explosion. In the aftermath Montag stands up and proclaims that he remembers his book.
Societal Connections
The society depicted in Inherit the Wind is a homogeneous one, wherein the Hillsboro inhabitants all think the same way. This tradition bound society also, as a whole, opposes any new ideas brought into the society that adds controversy and encourages debate. Once a new idea, such as Darwin’s species of origin, is introduced, the society reacts in fury and strives to repel it. In addition, the society in Inherit the Wind is also that of a systematic whole, where everyone has their individual role.
The society in Fahrenheit 451 is one of repetition and boredom in a futuristic time period. Everyone in the society acts, talks, and looks the same. New ideas that add controversy are also a crime of the state. Specifically, books are a crime against the state and antagonist Captain Beatty explains why by saying that books always disappoint people and the solution accepted by everyone to just get rid of them. Moreover, as a result of technology the society has become a whole, meaning there is no diversity in speech and action; anyone who acts differently is deemed “unsociable”.
These two societies are similar as both societies are of a homogeneous nature, where new ideas are unwelcome as they bring controversy, debate, and disappointments to one side of a two sided argument. Furthermore, the two societies both repel new ideas: In Inherit the Wind the society of Hillsboro repels the idea of Darwin’s Origin of Species as it goes against the Bible and in Fahrenheit 451, books are being burnt as they introduce conflicting theories and new ideas. Also, both societies are against those that are different. For example, in Inherit the Wind, Bertram Cates had conflicting views with the society and thus was condemned by Reverend Jeremiah Brown. Similarly, in Fahrenheit 451, Clarisse was discriminated against because she acted differently than the societal norm. Therefore, the societal parallels between Fahrenheit 451 and Inherit the Wind are evident in the character perceptions of one another.
Thematic Connections
In Inherit the Wind the majority of people believe in the Bible which causes large uproars to occur when theories that go against or don't follow the Bible's teachings are introduced. This repulsion against new ideas is clearly shown when the townsfolk of Hillsboro rally together to combat the introduction of Darwinism. Then, when Henry Drummond, the Criminal Defence Attorney, argues that not only is the law of the state being attacked, but the right to think as well.

The technological advances in the society of Fahrenheit 451 has enveloped people and turned them into government designed clones. The government is able to accomplish this by burning all books so no one is able to acquire the knowledge to create controversy or debate thus destroying the right to think.

Both stories are thematically similar as both revolve around the issue of the right to think. Both stories have influential societies that impact the individual’s right to think and in order to progress in the thinking movement, the protagonists undergo a psychological reflection that impacts their lifestyles. For example, in Inherit the Wind, Henry Drummond is able to reflect on his childhood experience with “Golden Dancer”, the fact that not everything is what it seems and is able to help Bertram Cates realize that thinking and having ideas is not wrong. Likewise, in Fahrenheit 451, Guy Montag undergoes a tremendous psychological shift that leads him to re-evaluate his current life situations which in turn leads to him changing his ways from fireman to the opposite way, a wanted criminal. A theme statement that can be used for both stories is: the right to think is an issue that requires much thought and development before it can be accepted.
Character Connections
There are many parallels between the characters of Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 and Jerome E. Lawrence and George E. Lee’s Inherit the Wind. The protagonist in Fahrenheit 451, Guy Montag, realizes the error of his past ways and strives to change. In the past Guy Montag was a destructive fireman, who aimed to destroy and burn all books that were symbols of knowledge. Similarly, the protagonist in Lawrence and Lee’s Inherit the Wind, Henry Drummond, realizes and reflects that everything is not what it seems and aimed to help the society of Hillsboro realize the right to think. Both protagonists fought for the right to think. Also, both antagonists are fairly similar as they aim for the destruction of knowledge. Captain Beatty, antagonist of Fahrenheit 451, continuously tries to persuade Montag to stop his search of knowledge and return to the world of burning books. Similarly in Inherit the Wind, Matthew Harrison Brady is the prosecutor of the case where school teacher Bertram Cates was trying to teach the origin of the species in Bible oriented Hillsboro. The origin of the species can represent new knowledge, similarly to how books represent knowledge. A foil in a piece of writing is a unfavourable character that leads the reader to favour another character, normally the protagonist. The foil in Fahrenheit 451 is Mildred, Montag’s wife; and the foil in Inherit the Wind is Reverend Jeremiah Brown. Mildred, is normally portrayed in Fahrenheit 451 as a materialistic wife that never thinks before acting. Those actions lead the reader to view her as annoying and intrusive thus leading the reader to view other characters, specifically Guy Montag, as more amiable. Reverend Jeremiah is depicted as an “over-zealous” condemning his own flesh and blood. Those actions lead to the reader viewing him as rash and thusly favouring the actions of the protagonist. Lastly, confidante Faber, from Fahrenheit 451, and confidante Bill Cates, from Inherit the Wind possess very similar roles. For example, both characters are the ones that instigate the conflict. Montag remembers that Faber would be someone that would possess the knowledge to aid him to bring back books and knowledge. Similarly, Bertram Cates is the one that sparked the Hillsboro court trial that leads Henry Drummond to the defense of progression of knowledge. Although, both storylines are very different, they both possess parallels between characters.
Works Cited
Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. 1951. Reprint. New York: Simon & Shuster Inc., 2012. Print.

Lawrence, Jerome, and Robert E. Lee. Inherit the Wind. New York: Bantam Book, 1960. Print.

Lee, Harper. To Kill A Mockingbird. New York: Grand Central Publishing, 1960. Print.

Shakespeare, William. The Merchant Of Venice. 2 ed. New York: Signet Classics, 1998. Print.

Stockett, Kathryn. The Help. London: Penguin Books, 2009. Print.

Images Used
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Videos Used

"The Tyger" by William Blake (read by Tom O'Bedlam)
https://vvww.youtube.com/watch?v=QMwNvzRKX64

"Richard Cory" by Edwin Arlington Robinson (read by Tom
O'Bedlam)
https://vvww.youtube.com/watch?v=vICuZwEMoTw

Simon & Garfunkel - Richard Cory 1966 live
https://vvww.youtube.com/watch?v=euuCiSY0qYs

Full transcript