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Marine Mammals

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by

Melissa Dixon

on 6 May 2015

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Transcript of Marine Mammals

Cetaceans
Two major groups of marine mammals are:

Cetaceans:
dolphins
porpoises
whales

There are approximately 125 marine mammal species worldwide managed under the MMPA.
Marine Mammals
Wait! What is a mammal, really?
To Be a Mammal...
Endothermic (warmblooded) animals
Have a body mostly covered with hairs...
In marine mammals, hair is only seen in young cetaceans and as baleen in whales
Produce milk through mammary glands
Give live birth to offspring
Side Note: There are no egg-laying exceptions in the ocean, but on land Austrailia holds 2 types of mammals that lay eggs. Do you know what they are?
Pinnipeds:
seals
sea lions
walruses
Dolphin
Orca
Porpoise
Whales
There are at least 19 species of dolphin in existence
Bottlenose Dolphin:
Order: Cetacea
Family: Delphinidae
Genus: Tursiops
Species: truncatus
Habitat Range:
Found in temperate and tropical waters around the world
Lifespan:
40-50 years
Most Common Species: Bottlenose Dolphin
Diet:
squid, crab, fish
Groups:
called pods or herds of 2-15
Order: Cetacea
Family: Delphinidae
Genus: Orcinus
Species: orca
Habitat Range:
Orcas are the most widely distributed marine mammals, found in all parts of the oceans
Lifespan:
up to 50-100 years
Diet:
varies (diet is often geographic or population specific), can include fish, marine mammals, sharks, and sea birds
There are at least
10 known ecotypes
Order: Cetacea
Family: Phocoenidae
Genus: Phocoenoides
Species: dalli
3 main species- Smallest, fastest cetaceans
Habitat Range:
entire North Pacific
Lifespan:
about 15-20 years
Diet:
anchovies, herring, squid, octopus, crab
Appearance:
Porpoise looks like a small dolphin without a beak
At least 29 known species in existence
Blue Whale-
Order: Cetacea
Family: Balaenopteridae
Genus: Balaenoptera
Species: musculus
Habitat Range:
Blue whales are found worldwide, from sub-polar to sub-tropical latitudes
Lifespan:
unknown, but sexually mature around 5-15 years
Diet:
primarily krill
Sperm Whale-

Order: Cetacea
Family: Physeteridae
Genus: Physeter
Species: macrocephalus
Blue whales can grow up to
110
feet long!!!
Killer whale comes from a misconstrued term: whale killer because orca have been seen killing large whales!
Dolphin Intelligence
Dolphin exhibit incredibly high levels of intelligence similar to humans- many studies are currently being conducted on this topic
Ability to learn and adapt to new situations
Varied hunting patterns with new ones emerging
Echolocation / SONAR
Pinnipeds
Pinnipeds are a
suborder
of carnivores with limbs (not fins) adapted to an aquatic life
Seals
There are over 18 species of "true seals"
or earless seals
Unlike whales and dolphins, pinnipeds share their time between the water and the land (or ice)
Descended from either bear-like or otter-like creatures
Lifespan:
about 25-30 years
Diet:
mainly fish, shellfish, and crustaceans
Habitat: varies by species
Harbor Seal-
Order: Carnivora
Family: Phocidae
Genus: Phoca
Species: vitulina
From Ugliest
To Cutest
Sea Lions and Fured Seals
Lifespan:
20-30 years
Diet:
squid, anchovies, mackerel, rockfish, and sardines
California Sea Lion-
Order: Carnivora
Family: Otariidae
Genus: Zalophus
Species:californianus
These species are the "eared seals" that have pinnae or outer ear flaps
Habitat:
Varied. Mostly in the Pacific along the west coast of the Americas, as well as in Austrailia and the Arctic circle.
Walruses
Lifespan:
Up to 40 years
Diet:
Walrus staples include clams, mussels and other bottom dwelling organisms
Habitat Range:
Artic regions only
Appearance:
Much larger other pinnipeds, with thick whiskers on lips and large tusks
Only one species
Odobenus rosmarus
Other Marine Mammals...
Polar bears
Otters
Sirenians
Lifespan:
about 30 years
Diet:
mostly ringed and bearded seals, but have been known to hunt walruses and whales!
Habitat Range:
Artic regions only

Largest bear species- Ursus maritimus
Polar bears are extremely fast runners and swimmers
In summary...
Enhydra lutris
Lifespan:
15-20 yrs
Diet:
Lobster, sea urchin, abalone
Habitat Range:
Sea otters live in the North Pacific (Japan to Alaska)
Most aquatic of its relatives, does not haul out on ice much.
Dugongs and Manatees are in the same order as elephants!
Dugongs-
Large brownish to gray animals from the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Manatees-
3 species that live about 60-70 years. Highly protected species that eat vegetation (plants)
Pinniped comes from Latin:
pinnipes
meaning "wing or fin footed"
*Considered marine because they completely submerge when diving
Full transcript