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Elections and Voting Behavior
Transcript of Elections and Voting Behavior
Elections and Voting Behavior Ory Garner
Valeri Speights Elections The Evolution of Elections Actually Voting How Americans
Vote The Electoral College Registration The Election of 1896 The Election of 2000 The Election of 1800 Primary
Elections Choosing party nominees out of the available candidates. Specific Policy •Referendum: A state-level process where voters can approve or disapprove proposed pieces of legislation or constitutional amendments. General Elections Between nominees of parties Institutionalize political activity. Provide regular access to political power... •Legitimacy: Political scientists use this term to describe an election process which is universally accepted as fair. There are three kinds:
General • Initiative Petition: Only used in some states, this allows voters to put changes in the state constitution to a vote if they can get signatures of 10% of the voting population that participated in the prior year's election. According to the press, Jefferson was a bible-burning atheist and Adams had an overpowering desire to rule the world. It was up to the state legislatures to choose members of the electoral college, and each member of the electoral college had two votes. Jefferson tied with Burr for the presidency. It was up to the Federalist-controlled House of Reps to determine the president. Incumbent President John Adams
Thomas Jefferson. State and local organizations did all of the campaigning. It was considered below the dignity of the presidential office. McKinley won by a vast majority, supported by the industrial Northeast and Midwest. William McKinely (R) vs
William Jennings Bryan (D) The 2000 election showed the importance of campaign image and presentation, due to the power of the media Gore
Bush Due to the narrow count in Florida and indecision over vote recount methods, the outcome of the election was practically decided by the Supreme Court. Why Vote? With 100 million people voting (2000 presidential election Gore v. Bush) the outcome may and will most likely not be affected by your vote. Political efficacy: belief that ordinary people can influence the government. Who Votes? elections or policy questions which voters engage in making or ratifying legislation Proposition 13 (officially named the People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation) was an amendment of the Constitution of California enacted during 1978 and declared constitutional by the United States Supreme Court in the case of Nordlinger v. Hahn. It decreased property taxes statewide. Newspapers were still ruthless... Jefferson's "Victory" was the first peaceful transition of power between parties via election in history. After 35 indecisive ballots, Jefferson finally won. The main conflict was centered around the gold standard and high tariffs vs. the silver standard. Breaking tradition, Bryan gave 600 speeches campaigning across 18,000 miles. He was favored by debtors and silver miners. McKinley stayed at home in Ohio. In doing so he managed to label the Democrats as the party of the 1893 depression. If Gore had kept his focus on past performance he'd have done better, but he insisted on running as his own man and only focusing on the future. Bush played the ethics card to "restore dignity and honor to the White House," emphasized that he trusted the people over the government, and called for a big tax cut that would benefit everyone. Because the election was so narrow, Hillary Clinton tried to seek a constitutional amendment that would provide for direct election of the president, but it didn't happen. Civic Duty: long-term duty to preserve democracy. Voter Registration:
a system adopted by the states that requires voters to register well in advance of election day. Some states permit election day registration. Motor Voter Act:
Passed in 1993 and effective in the 1996 election, this act allows people to register to vote the same day they get their driver’s license. Educated people are more capable of discerning the major differences between the candidates. Older people are far more likely to vote, especially those in retirement. Race minorities are underrepresented. Women vote more than men. Married couples are more likely to vote. Union members and long-term residents vote more. Mandate Theory of Elections:
if you are elected you are obligated to go through with your policies. Parties:regular perspective for voters to understand politics through In agreeing with a party, voters do not need to be concerned with every issue if they agree with overall ideology But American voters are now increasingly individualistic; media provides info, so we do not need to rely on a party. Appearance serves as a major contributing factor for attracting voters INTEGRITY RELIABILITY
COMPETENCE Policy voting: when the voters' own issue preferences serve as the basis for their choices. Requirements: clearly understand their policy positions
be able to differentiate each candidates' position on the issues Media focuses more on the candidates than the public response, and vague on major issues, therefore few voters use policy voting due to their limited knowledge on elections. Main factors that influence elections: party voting, candidate evaluation, and (or lack of) clear policy distinctions created by the Constitution, electors chosen through state parties who submit votes that reflect popular majority in voting for the president. Every state is given as many electoral votes as they have members of the House of Representatives and Senate All states aside from Nebraska and Maine have a winner-take-all system, where immediately the candidate with the greatest popularity vote in the states is who the electoral college representative votes for. Electors meet in December, count the vote for President which is reported by the vice-presidentIf the electoral college doesn't have a majority, the election is turned over to the House. Retrospective voting: theory of voting in which voters ask the question of candidates (not literally) "What have you done for me lately?" Elections & the Scope of Government Electoral punishment threatens policy makers, so they depend on government support
With electoral power, people view government as a "servant" rather than a "master"
Elections persuade citizens as state power increases, of their state's capacity to serve them
People seek to benefit, not be protected in democracy Thought Questions How has the value of an individual vote increased or decreased with the development of technology and media? How do voting theories affect the way that politicians campaign?