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AIDS/HIV Consequence Map
Transcript of AIDS/HIV Consequence Map
By: Simran Barar
By: Sam Jemmett What Is AIDS? •Traces of AIDS go as far back as 1930’s but the first diagnosis was made in 1981
•HIV (Human immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
•Dr. Montagnier and Dr. Barre-Sinoussi discovered the AIDS virus.
•In 1884 Institute Pasteur of France discovered the HIV Virus and it wasn’t until a year later when a U.S scientist, Dr. Robery Gallo confirmed that HIV was the cause of AIDS.
•In 1983 approximately 21, 000 people died when they were infected with AIDS or HIV
•Disease only in humans, but is similar to SIV (Simian Immunodeficieny Virus) which occurs in monkeys and chimpanzees.
•Two Types HIV-1 (Most common type-worldwide) and HIV-2 (Found in parts of west Africa)
•First appeared in gay men and people infected through blood supply There is no cure for AIDS/HIV Disease Vaccines - Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): disables a protein that HIV need to makes copies of its self (Ex. Sustiva, Intelence, viramune).
Protease inhibitors (PIs): This drug disables protease, another protein that HIV needs to make copies of itself. (Ex. Reyataz, Prezista, Lexiva, Norvir).
- Entry/fusion Inhibitors: These drugs block the HIV’s entry into CD4 cells. (Ex. Fuzeon, Selzentry).
- Intergrase Inhibitors: Is a drug that diasables intergrase, which is a protein that HIV uses to insert its genetic material into CD4 cells. Research: •Basic scientific research includes finding out information about how the virus attacks the body, how the body defends itself. Basically scientist and doctors research the fundamentals and the nature of HIV/AIDS. Other researches include behavioral health intervention (Sex education), drug development, macrobiotics for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV vaccines, and antiretroviral drugs. Vaccine •Vaccine: Is a medicine that guides the immune system to recognize disease and how to protect itself against an infectious agent (i.e bacterium/virus). When the vaccine is taken the immune system has a number of responses which then are stored in its memory so when the disease is back it knows exactly how to respond.
-Safe for children, adolescence, adults, and pregnant women
-Be effect regardless of ethnicity, and health conditions of the person
-Protect he victim of all sub-types of HIV
-Protect against any route of HIV infection
-Be inexpensive to manufacture, and easy to transport and administer
-Be stable under field conditions
-Provide long lasting protection Ideal HIV Vaccine: (IAVI Scientific Blueprint) Communities affected by AIDS/HIV Aboriginals: -First Nations are increased rate of HIV because id social, economic, and behavioral factors such as poverty, substance use (drug uses), STDs, and limited service to health service.
-Aboriginals only represent only 3.3% of Canada’s population but they are comprised of 5-8% of prevalent infections (who currently have HIV) and 6-12% of new HIV infection in Canada (2002)
-The most common way HIV is transmitted among them is through Injection drug use. They are getting infected at a younger age when compared to non-aboriginal persons.
-Aboriginals make up 3.1% of the reported ethnicity cases, and 3.3% make up the Aboriginal Canadians meaning 0.2% are not being affected. Africans: -Countries that are most affected by HIV and AIDS in Africa are in the sub- Saharan Africa.
-It is estimated that 1.8 million people in the sub-Saharan region will became newly infected din 2011, meaning there are 23.5 million people already living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa
-58% of the people affected by HIV in Africa are women
-East and Southern Africa are the most affected by AIDS and HIV, while west and Central Africa are less affected by HIV and AIDS
-Although in 2011 infections in the sub-Saharan have been 25% lower than in 2001 Monitoring In Ontario -In December 1996 the Ontario HIV Epidemiologic Monitoring Unit was established under a mandate from the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.
-This Unit creates and provides in-depth and timely reports which characterize the growing HIV epidemic in Ontario.
-The reports they produce include statistical models, annual surveillance which includes data on HIV diagnoses, AIDS, HIV-related morality and much more.
-The unit collaborates with many organizations like HIV Laboratory, Public Health Laboratory-Toronto, Public Health Ontario and more. Number of People Affected 2010
-Women-18.8%, Men: 81.2%
-Gay or bisexual men (MSM): 51.6% (15, 072)
-Injection Drug users: 6% (1, 988)
-Heterosexual transmission: 19.3% (3, 920)
-People from countries with high rates of HIV: 20.5% (4, 878)
-Aboriginals : 12.5%
-In 1999: 15 904 people infected – 2008: 26, 627 infected. Prevention: -The Ontario government has funded for more than 90 programs and services across the province to prevent HIV/AIDS.
-The government offers anonymous HIV testing at 50 locations
-Ontario has introduced the rapid point care (POC) HIV testing in which results are given in one visit
-The province funds for the Ontario HIV treatment Network (they research into aids)
-The AIDS and sexual Health Info Line provides province-wide information and anonymous counselling, and advice for patients
-“Provides broad social and health policy advice to the Minister of Health and Long – Term care on all aspects of HIV/AIDS”
-Members consist of one third of the people living with HIV/AIDS, one third health care providers, and one third on community rep. Ontario Advisory Committee
on HIV/AIDS: Help Testing: -Prenatal HIV Testing Program
-Anonymous Testing Program
-Point of Care HIV Testing (prick the finger for blood, do the test and give the results on the same day)
-Standard HIV Testing (sending blood samples to the public health laboratory,, can take up to 2 weeks)
-Testing by Healthcare Providers
-Prenatal HIV Testing Program ( all pregnant women are offered HIV testing) Casey House -Pioneer in HIV/AIDS health care, first to dedicate HIV/AIDS facility in Canada and one of the first in the world
-Provide treatment, support and care for people, nursing care, counselling, nutrition, massage therapy for people affected by HIV/AIDS
-12 bed residence Social Consequences Communities That are Affected Cultures That are affected Groups That are Affected Brings Together: Divides: Life-style and Conditions:
-Patients taking medications will have many symptoms and side effects due to the different medications everyday (Stomach bloating which causes pain)
-Many people who were close to the patient will try to stay away and not come in contact
-The patient has to be careful, because they don’t want to be leaving their body fluids for people to come in contact to. AIDS/HIV Education In Ontario: -AIDS education is began to taught between grades 1 to 9.
-Ontario schools believe in teaching every student to have information and skills to make healthy decisions
-Encourage student engagement in the HIV response
-Believe learning should be consistent, and that every child can access and participate and support an inclusive environment to children, youth, people affected by, and vulnerable to HIV/AIDS
-Grade 8 students will “identify symptoms, methods of transmission, prevention and high-risk behaviours related to common STD’s, HIV, and AIDS”
-HIV/AIDS education is combined in the health curriculum (often part of Physical Ed.) and taught about outcomes, diseases, problems, and solutions to un-protected sex Ethical/Legal Consequences Impacts On Conservation Groups Diversions of Conservation Funds Many conservation organizations are paying “for medical expenses, sick leave,
terminal benefits and funeral costs, and training for replacement staff”. So in the end they do not have money for conservation budget, and in the end have to be covered by scarce core funds. Changes In Land
use Long-Term Changes Short-Term Changes -Loss of traditional Knowledge : When the adults die, their traditional knowledge and resource management and local farming system is also lost. Also the land resources are used in less appropriate way
-Decline in Agricultural production, knowledge and management skills decline.
-Many people turn to agricultural remedies which can have a decline in production if the "need" for it grows. Life With Aids Loved ones of the
HIV positive person seem distance and far away Family or friends ignore you and keep a distance and choose not to interact with you. People unaware of HIV/AIDS Increase the transmittance rate, as a result of un-protected sex If more people knew about the consequences, the transmittance could be avoided and people could be saved Workforce Many employers do not want to hire employees with AIDS/HIV , because the risk of contamination is high. It also puts co-workers at risk of being infected Shunned by co-workers and are treated like a walking virus Richard Cordova was tested positive for HIV nine years ago. He is currently taking medication everyday and is living with the fear that one day his health might fail. Richard has to see a doctor every three months and has ran a total of 6 marathons. As you can see life with aids is not fun and games. How it can affect you ? Long Term Affects -Infects and kills your immune system
-Can risk getting cancer
-Changes the way your body handles fat and sugar -Can get rashes
-May lead to death Short Term Affects -Diarrhea
-Nausea and vomiting
-Headaches How to raise awareness on aids Personal Action to raise awareness - you can create posters
-Host an event that's main focus is on aids
-Wear a red ribbon- International symbol of aids
-Tell people about free testing on June 27th How students can raise awareness -Create posters and put them up around your school
-Get a guest speaker to come to your school and educate the students on aids
-Host an event that focus on aids for your school
-Have a red ribbon day at your school since that is the international symbol for aids Aids can affect every part of the community. This virus can affect the people that have aids and also the people who don't have aids. It also affects the families and friends of those individual that have this virus. Anyone can get aids or have aids. This virus does not only affect one culture but affects every culture and every individual. What Individual rights might be affected ? Individuals living
with the virus Those individuals living with the virus don't have many rights. Their rights are greatly such as their rights for employment and housing. These individuals also have to suffer the burden of having this virus and losing many of there rights. Consequences of transmitting aids - It's an Criminal offense to transmit or expose another person to HIV through unprotected sex
-Can be sentenced to significant amount of time in prison
-Legislators and courts have determined that people living with HIV have to disclose their HIV status before engaging in anything that can risk transmitting HIV Individuals of the community The rights of the individuals of the community are affected because they lose there right to live in a non-discrimination community. They also lose there freedom of association. -Other HIV/AIDS patients: These patients could interact with each other comfortably, and share, gain, and advise information. Makes them realize that there are others like them.
-Care-giving Organizations: Other AIDS/HIV organizations and care facilities are united as one. They can promote, support and fundraise together. They can also connect with other organizations around the world like in Africa, India etc. -Friends and Family: After hearing about your disease many people will not want to come in contact with you and will keep a distant. They will try to avoid you at all costs.
-Workplace and co-workers: It will be harder for HIV positive patients to get a job due to the risk of passing on an infection. Also co-workers will not want to work with the patients out of fear.
-Life-partner/Girlfriend/Boyfriend/Sex partner: The risk of catching the infection is higher during sexual intercourse, therefore these people will not likely engage in sexual activity with you.
-The Wildlife and Environmental Society of Malawi lost 14 percent of its staff -Many groups are loosing funds and employers
-Conservation groups have nothing to conserve when the people with traditional practices are dying and not able to teach future generation. (rural_urban shift = more HIV infections) By:Simran By: Simran + Rajvi By:Rajvi By: Sam By: Simran By:Rajvi By: Rajvi By: Sam Ethical Issues The ethical issues on aids revolve around discrimination, privacy, confidentiality, protection of vulnerable groups and stigma. Health Care for HIV/AIDS cost Canadians billion dollars a year Places Affected - Africa
- Latin America
- Asia and the Pacific
- Eastern Europe and Central Asia
- High income countries Africa - Estimated 23.5 million living with HIV in the Sub-Sahara
- Increase of antiretroviral therapy has been associated with a decrease in the number of HIV infections across this region
- Deliver HIV treatment to 80 percent of eligible people
- Few African countries have achieved a great uptake of voluntary medical male circumcisions
- Safer sexual behaviour taking place in many countries High Income Countries - Infections have been concentrated by injecting drug users and gay men
- Rate of new infected victims dropped significantly at one point but may be increasing again
- Some areas have put into affect aggressive HIV prevention efforts Asia and the Pacific - Diversity of AIDS is even greater than in Africa
- Prevention programs expanded greatly
- Extensive champagnes have been put into effect to educate the public and prevent the spread of this infection Caribbean - Has one of the highest HIV prevalence
- HIV prevalence has fallen immensely over the last several years
- AIDS is high on the agenda of governments in this area
-Prevention programs put into effect Research A number of researches are ongoing to find new cures for AIDS Undesirable on these scales: Global Country Region Company People in general Immediate neighbors Impact on woman: Woman living in poor countries are forced to do labour such as prostitution, in which they forced to have unprotected sex, higher rate of getting infected.
HIV spread through Natural Resource Extraction:
Fishing communities have higher HIV rates, this is because fisherman often fish farther away from mainland, where they has sex with women.