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World Leaders in the 1940s
Transcript of World Leaders in the 1940s
"FDR" When Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway, FDR started building up America's military. FDR prepared America for the worst even if it meant that they might have to engage in WWII. Joseph Stalin He was the ruler of the Soviet Union during World War II, and was in alliance with Hitler Soviet Union Leader Mussolini was known as an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party. He is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism. Benito Mussolini Italian Leader Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill British Politician, Statesman, and great wartime leader Churchill was an officer in the British Army, a historian, a writer, and an artist. So far in history, he is the only British prime minister to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature, and he was the first person to be made an honorary citizen of the United States. Chairman Mao Zedong a Chinese revolutionary, guerrilla warfare strategist, poet, political theorist, and leader of the Chinese Revolution. He was the architect and the founding father of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in 1976. His theoretical contribution to Marxism-Leninism, along with his military strategies and brand of political policies, are now collectively known as Maoism. Queen Wilhelmina -While in Britain, Queen Wilhelmina took charge of the Dutch Government in exile, and she started setting up a chain of command and communicating to her people.
-The Dutch prime minister Dirk Jan de Geer, believed that the Allies would not win the war, and he intended to open negotiations with the Nazis for a separate peace.
-Wilhelmina sent late night broadcasts to her people, and they in-turn would find a safe place to hide to listen to her illegally.
-During the war, Queen Wilhelmina was almost killed by a bomb that took several lives of her guards and severally damaged her country home.
-The Netherlands was liberated in 1945.
-Queen Wilhelmina didn't move back into her palace after the war. Instead she lived in a mansion and stayed there for 8 months. She went around motivating people and sometimes used a bicycle instead of a car. a Spanish military general and head of state of Spain from October 1936 until his death in November 1975. Francisco Franco Queen of the Netherlands -Franco requested food, military equipment, Gibraltar, French North Africa etc., but Hitler thought it was too much and no agreement was reached.
-Franco was neutral during WWII, but he let soldiers voluteer to assist Germany and Italy, but they were forbidden to go West.
-During the entire war, especially after 1942, Spain was kept more or less open for Jewish refugees. Major Military Leaders During WWII Field Marshal Erwin Rommel Famous German General -Popularly known as "Desert Fox"
-He is regarded as one of the greatest generals in history.
-Rommel played a very important role in the German army
-He also supported a conspiracy against Hitler. Everyone wanted to assissinate him but Rommel suggested that they get him arrested and charged for the crimes he'd committed. Reichs Marshall Hermann Göring German politician, military leader, and a leading member of the Nazi Party -Adolf Hitler had promoted him to the rank of Reichsmarschall, making Göring senior to all other Wehrmacht commanders, and in 1941 Hitler designated him as his successor and deputy in all his offices.
-By 1942, with the German war effort stumbling on both fronts, Göring's standing with Hitler was very greatly reduced.
-Göring largely withdrew from the military and political scene to enjoy the pleasures of life as a wealthy and powerful man. Marshal Ion Victor Antonescu Romanian soldier, authoritarian politician and convicted war criminal -Created an alliance with Hitler -When the Nazi's entered the Netherlands, Queen Wilhelmina wanted to stay, but she was left with no option except to retreat to Britain. -Relations between the Dutch Government and the Queen were tense, with mutual dislike growing as the war progressed.
-Queen Wilhelmina was very popular and very respected among the World Leaders. -Therefore Queen Wilhelmina sought to remove Jan de Geer from power. With the aid of a minister, Pieter Gerbrandy, she succeeded.
-Queen Wilhelmina called Adolf Hitler "the arch-enemy of mankind." - In 1944 Queen Wilhelmina became only the second woman to be inducted into the Order of the Garter. Churchill described her as the only real man among the governments-in-exile in London. -He talked to Hitler when the war broke out and Europe. -It's said that Hitler claimed that he would rather have his teeth extracted than deal any further with Franco. -Overall, throughout the war, Franco's policies saved over 200,000 European Jews -In the end, Rommel ended up killing himself because he was ratted out to the authorities, even though he was just a supporter. He was given two choices by two fellow officiers: face the People's Court or commit suicide quietly. Rommel chose to end his own life. -After the Second World War, Göring was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg Trials. He was sentenced to death by hanging, but committed suicide by cyanide ingestion the night before he was due to be hanged. Hideki Tojo a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), a leader of the Taisei Yokusankai, and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II -Hideki was responsible for the attack on Pearl Harbor.
-Tojo, aware that Japan was unable to win the war, resigned from office after the loss of Saipan in July 1944.
-He shot himself in the chest just before he was arrested by the US Military in 1945.
-Tojo survived and after being nursed back to health was tried as a war criminal.
-After the war, he was sentenced to death for war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East
-He was hung on December 23, 1948 Georgy Zhukov Russian officer (meaning member of the armed forces) in the Red Army during WWII -Oversaw the defense at Leningrad
-During World War II, Zhukov played a pivotal role in leading the Red Army through much of Eastern Europe to liberate the Soviet Union and other nations from the Axis Powers' occupation and conquer Germany's capital, Berlin.
-He is the most decorated general in the history of the Russian Empire, Russian Federation, and the Soviet Union. Dwight D. Eisenhower 5-star general in United States army -34th president
-Last president to be born in the 19th century
- During World War II, he served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45, from the Western Front. -In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO. British military commander Alexander was concurrently promoted to the rank of field marshal, though this was backdated to the fall of Rome on 4 June 1944, so that Alexander would once again be senior to Montgomery, who had himself been made a field marshal on 1 September 1944, after the end of the Battle of Normandy. Alexander then received the German surrender in Italy, on 29 April 1945. Further, as a reward for his leadership in North Africa and Italy, Alexander, along with a number of other prominent British Second World War military leaders, was elevated to the peerage on 1 March 1946 by King George VI; he was created Viscount Alexander of Tunis and Errigal in the County of Donegal. Harold Alexander 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis Activists and Religious Leaders of the 1940s Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi a pre-eminent political and idealogical leader of India during the Indian Independence Movement -Gandhi never started out being an religious activist.
-Quit India became the most forceful movement in the history of the struggle, with mass arrests and violence on an unprecedented scale.
- Thousands of freedom fighters were killed or injured by police gunfire, and hundreds of thousands were arrested.
-Gandhi and his supporters made it clear they would not support the war effort unless India were granted immediate independence.
-He even clarified that this time the movement would not be stopped if individual acts of violence were committed, saying that the "ordered anarchy" around him was "worse than real anarchy."
-The Quit India project had moderate success
-While Gandhi was held in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune for two years, his secertary died and his wife died after being in prison for 18 months Varian Fry An American Journalist He ran a rescue network in Vichy France that helped approximately 2,000 to 4,000 anti-Nazi and Jewish refugees to escape Nazi Germany and the Holocaust. *Presented by: Heather Jeffers, Whitney Hayes, and Zoe Meschberger*