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Charlie Pascazio

on 26 November 2013

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Transcript of OBJECTIVE

Plan and relationship of program with a theory
Static Stretches used
Here are a few of the static stretches i used during my training.
Dynamic Stretches used
These are some of the dynamic stretches i used during my program. I implemented dynamic stretches because they are quite specific to the movements in football and other sports.
Describe the current situation
My overall product goal is to be able to improve my sit and reach flexibility result from 14 cm to 20 cm in the space of time through out the semester.
What worked /Barries
There were many things that worked well during my training and also a few barriers, which in the end were overcome.
In conclusion I feel as though I implemented my program into my lifestyle quite well and was able to create a behaviour change. I am now in the action / maintenance stage of the stages of change model and intend on continuing my exercises to resume improving my skill level on the football field. In any training program there are always going to be barriers and things stopping you from achieving your overall goal. But one thing to take away from this is that there are always ways to overcome these barriers and make a change in your life.

I reached my desired change of an average of 20 cm score in the sit and reach test and was able to even top it by 1 cm. To achieve this I stuck to the guidelines of my process goals and the stages of change. I was able to change my behaviour from never stretching or doing any exercises to help my flexibility to now doing stretches and exercises almost everyday. I chose the stage of change model because it was easy to follow and was consistent in providing me with an achieved goal and a change in my behaviour.

My objective over the period of this flexibility training is to increase the flexibility in my hamstring muscles and also lower back.

I will be using different dynamic and static stretches to achieve this by the end of the 8 week period.
Baseline Data
Identify the problem
I am lacking flexibility in my lower back and hamstrings which is very problematic in football.
I have been told by my senior coach that one of the things hindering my game is the distance of my kick due to my lack of flexibility.


Held for 30 seconds at least. And also performed in the cool down stages. very helpful in increasing the length of the sit and reach test.

Held for at least 30 seconds and performed in cool down to help prevent injury.


This exercise will be performed twice, over a 15-20m distance, helping gain flexibility over the hip joints.

I chose this exercise because it replicates the same movements as a football game.


Same as the other dynamic stretches this will be used in the warm up and is also aimed at increasing flexibility through the hips.

Performed twice across a 15-20 m distance. I have chosen this exercise because it replicates the same muscle group and movement used in a football game.

What worked well
During my flexibility training program i was able to achieve above my overall product goal and most of the process goals. I believe that my simplistic program and easy to follow exercises helped in being able to attain my goal. Overall i achieved my main goal of achieving a sit and reach score of 20 cm
What barriers were there?
There were a number of barriers that i came across along the road that made it difficult to achieve my process goals, these being; laziness, lack of motivation, being to tired and being bored. i was able to over come these barriers and advance through the stages of change model by creating time during the morning and varying the way i went about the exercises to gain some more motivation and to make a more interesting session. In the end i achieved my goals and was happy with my results.
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures

This exercise will also be performed twice over 15-20m increasing flexibility of the hips

These exercises will allow for increased flexibility when performing movements like running and jumping specific to a football match.

Product Goal
Towards the end of the season my football coach had asked me to improve my flexibility in order to improve my game. increasing my flexibility will allow me to perform better during the game and also live a more freely moving lifestyle.
My goal is to be able to improve my sit and reach score from 13cm to 20cm resulting in a better performances and being able to touch my toes.
Process goals
1. Start stretching my gluteus Maximus and hamstring muscles everyday.
2. Start cooling down after footy training
3. Properly stretching before and after every training session
4. Massage, lower back, hamstring and calves.
5. By week 4, be able to stretch to 17 cm on the sit and reach scale.

Each of these process goals are directly related to improving my behaviour change (flexibility) and all satisfy the SMART criteria.

At the start of the semester I measured the flexibility in my hamstring muscles and lower back through the sit and reach test and was shocked to find out that i could not even reach my toes. I started with an average score of 13 cm, testing the left leg right leg and both. This being ranked as 'poor' flexibility for a young male who participates in a regular amount of physical activity. I was quite unaware of this situation as i had never tested my flexibility before. I was determined to improve this over the 8 week period given.
I am currently playing football for my local senior team, but am lacking a few minor attributes to my game. One of these is the distance in the length of my kick. Before the start of this flexibility training program, I was in the pre-contemplation stage of the state of change model and after the 8 week period, Improving my flexibility will help on and off the field for various things.
How the sit and reach works
Here's a quick video tutorial of how to go about completing the sit and reach test.
Relevant - Improving my sit and reach over the course of the semester is a relevant stepping-stone for my chosen sport of football. With improved flexibility my end goal is to be able to improve my game and expand the distance of my kick.
Attainable - These proccess and product goal are extremely attainable because these exercises are easy enough to complete and significantly easy to monitor and keep track of over the selected time period.
Measurable - I will be measuring my flexibility through the sit and reach flexibility test. Over the 8 week period I will be attempting to improve the length of flexibility in my hamstring, lower back and Gluteus Maximus muscles. The sit and reach test is very standard everywhere and is very reliable in gauging the flexibility of the lower back and legs.
Time – The time frame I will be working in is the 8-week period we have been given during our second semester. I will hopefully have improved my sit and reach by the end of this period enabling me to start improving my skills in football.
Specific – To improve my sit and reach test from 13cm to 20cm, resulting in improved performance during in football.
Behaviour Change
The reason as to why i decided to improve the lack of flexibility that 8 weeks ago i once had, is because it came to a point where i was unable to perform certain skills and maneuvers on the football field which hugely impacted my game in a negative way. If i wanted to improved my game, it was time to change my behaviour and start gaining more flexibility
The Australian Bureau of statistics states that “Health is a concept that relates to and describes a person's state of being. It is therefore highly individual. Good health means different things to different people, and the meaning varies according to individual and community expectations and context” (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001). The Bureau then continues on to suggest that many people consider themselves healthy if they are free of disease or disability. On the other hand there are also individuals who do carry disabilities or diseases but they see themselves as being in good health if they are able to manage their condition to reduce it impacting on the quality of their life.
Before the start of this flexibility program was implemented I was at the pre-contemplation stage of the state of change model, which varies in definitions but is relatively the same for every behavior. “Stage definitions vary from behaviour to behaviour and across different versions of the model but in the case of smoking: ‘pre-contemplation’ involves an individual not thinking about stopping for at least 6 months” (West. 2005) Although my change doesn’t involve smoking, the time frame for the pre contemplation stage is very similar. As I began to implement my flexibility program I started to consider what goals I wanted to achieve and how I was going to achieve them. (Prochaska & Velicer 1997) suggests that the model proposes that different process of change are involved in moving between different stages and that all the diverse steps are associated with different beliefs. Prochaska and Velicer also put forth the idea that before advancing through to the maintenance and Termination stage, it is likely that the individual will revert back to prior stages before proceeding on to the last stages. At this point in time I believe I would be in maintenance stage in a steady pattern of training my flexibility and having gained 5 cm in my sit and reach teach the goals I set were all achieved.
Being able to sett effective and realistic goals is essential to be able to create a change in behaviour. If your goals are unfeasible or unattainable then you will not give yourself much chance of implementing any change in your lifestyle. “The key to success is to set "SMART" behavioral goals. "SMART" stands for specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-limited” (Chisholm, J. 2011). Sticking to the SMART guidelines will help to create an effective set of process and product goals. (Locke. & Latham 1985) suggest that difficult goals lead to better results rather than vague or easy goals, and also that by setting smaller process goals it can help achieve the long-term product goal. After having set my goals and gone through the 8 weeks of flexibility training, I would now class myself in the action stage of the stage of change model continuing on to the maintenance stage. I achieved all my process goals was able to see a clear change in my flexibility.
Stages of change model.
During my program i focused on the state of change model because it is relatively simple and easily understandable and has been proven to work. "Moving an individual from one stage to another is purpoted to be a worthwhile goal because it will increase the likelihood that this person will subsequently achieve the termination stage" (Prochaska & Goldstein 1991). Having a model to work off as a guideline was very helpful in advancing through each stage. this has helped me model my program and inform others about how to go about implementing their own program. The state of change model is very useful because it is very diverse and can apply to almost any behaviour change. (Ciccomascolo, & Riebe. 2008) suggest in their article that the stages of change model is being applied to a wide range of behaviors and in a variety of ways. Thus leading to why i chose to use this theory throughout my flexibility program.
The Product and process goals that were set for me to be able to achieve my desired flexibility through out the 8 week period were quite attainable and directly related to my chosen behaviour change. I planned to follow my product goals very closely to make sure that the desired improvements were achieved. Having to stretch almost everyday and dedicate a reasonable quantity of time towards my flexibility allowed for a couple barriers to arise. These were not having enough time and being lazy. The way i was able to overcome these was i made sure i did my stretches and exercises just after i got out of bed in the morning. Allowing me to have more time during the day and preventing me from being to lazy to do them during the day or before i went to bed.
Pre-interim & post-intervention comparisons and results.
Overall my program worked out quite well, exceeding my own expectations and beating my product goal by 1 cm which was a very big achievement. The weaknesses of this program would have to have been maybe a bit of lack of preparation with recording my post intervention and pre-interim results. I could have improved this by being more organised and maybe left more time for myself to be able to complete the recording of the data. I felt my process goals were one of the strengths, as they were quite feasible and relatively easy to abide by. I believed that after the program finished and as of now i am sitting in the action / maintenance stage of change. The program overall being a success with me being able to achieve my product goal.
Here is the pre-interim data that i collected for my flexibility. As you can see it was fairly poor and is very different compared to my post training program data.
The progress that was made through out the program was remarkable and i was quite happy to see my behaviour change so rapidly. This enabling me to become a better footballer and allowing me to be able to understand the process of behaviour change.
These are my post training results from the sit and reach test. which show my change in behaviour, from not doing any stretching at all to stretching most days and warming up and down properly before and after training.
The results above were recorded after my 8 weeks of flexibility training during semester 2, 2013.

This stretch will be held for a minimum of 30 seconds going up to 90 +.

Australian Bureau of Statistics (2001). Measuring Wellbeing: Frameworks for Australian Social Statistics, Retrieved from: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/ BCDF2C64DD5B539CCA2571B90011998C?opendocument

Chisholm, J. (2011, Jan 06). Set SMART goals you can reach. Messenger Inquirer. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/822475326?accountid=12528

Ciccomascolo, L., & Riebe, D. (2008). Stages of change and physical education assessment. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 79(1), 13-15. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/215758563?accountid=12528

Prochaska, J. O. & Goldstein, M. G. (1991) Process of smoking cessation. Implications for clinicians. Clinical Chest Medicine, 12, 727–735.

Prochaska, J. O. & Velicer, W. F. (1997) The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 38–48.

The application of goal setting to sports. Locke, Edwin A.; Latham, Gary P. Journal of Sport Psychology, Vol 7(3), Sep 1985, 205-222

WEST. (2005), Time for a change: putting the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) Model to rest. Addiction, 100: 1036–1039. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01139.x
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