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Waves, Waves, Waves!

Juan Valenzuela, Ms. Cruz, PAP Physics Period 2, 5 May 2013
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Juan Valenzuela

on 5 April 2013

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Transcript of Waves, Waves, Waves!

Juan Valenzuela
Ms. Cruz
PAP Physics - Period 2
5 May 2013 WAVES WAVES, WAVES, WAVES! TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction
Radio Waves
CAT and PET Scans
Infrared Waves
Ultraviolet Light
Gamma Waves
Radar
Tsunami and Wave Erosion X-Rays
Reflection and Refraction
Lenses and Polarization
Reflecting and Radio Telescopes
Light and Electron Microscopes
Ultrasound
Microwaves
Lasers
Works Cited SET A SET B SET D INTRODUCTION WHAT ARE WAVES? ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES RADIO WAVES ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION MECHANICAL WAVES caused by disturbance/vibration in matter
medium = matter through which wave travels
can be solid, gas, liquid, or plasma
energy is transferred by waves
molecules in medium bump into each other
bumping transfers energy to next molecule
matter in medium is NOT transferred MATTER IN MEDIUM MATTER RETURNS TO SAME POSITION AFTER ENERGY PASSES THROUGH ENERGY DIRECTION OF ENERGY MOVEMENT do not need medium to propagate (can travel in vacuums)
explained by James Clerk Maxwell in mid 1800s
changing electromagnetic fields (coupled electric and magnetic fields) form electromagnetic waves VIBRATIONS IN ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELD (~) CAUSE WAVES ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ALL ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY/RADIATION ARE VARIANTS OF THE SAME THING
radio
microwave
infrared
visible
ultraviolet
x-ray
gamma ray Heinrich Hertz proved the speed of radio waves was the same as the speed of light (they all have the same speed c=3.00x10^8 m/s) WAVES ARE USED TO REPRESENT PERIODIC MOTION (MOTION THAT REPEATS ITSELF OVER TIME) PRESENT USES OVERVIEW HISTORY MEDICAL/ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL FUTURE USES AND PURPOSE PRESENT USES HISTORY MEDICAL/ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL FUTURE USES OVERVIEW AND PURPOSE PRESENT USES HISTORY MEDICAL/ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL FUTURE USES OVERVIEW AND PURPOSE EVERYDAY EVERYDAY EVERYDAY PRESENT USES HISTORY MEDICAL/ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL FUTURE USES EVERYDAY PRESENT USES HISTORY MEDICAL/ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL FUTURE USES EVERYDAY PRESENT USES HISTORY MEDICAL/ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL FUTURE USES OVERVIEW AND PURPOSE EVERYDAY PRESENT USES OVERVIEW (cont'd) MEDICAL/ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL FUTURE USES OVERVIEW AND PURPOSE EVERYDAY PRESENT USES HISTORY MEDICAL/ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL FUTURE USES OVERVIEW AND PURPOSE EVERYDAY PRESENT USES OVERVIEW (cont'd) MEDICAL/ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL FUTURE USES OVERVIEW AND PURPOSE EVERYDAY PRESENT USES OVERVIEW (cont'd) MEDICAL/ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL FUTURE USES OVERVIEW AND PURPOSE EVERYDAY SOURCES TYPE OF WAVE:
Electromagnetic (Transverse Wave)
RELATION TO ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
lowest frequencies, longest wavelengths
Frequency Range: 3,000 Hz - 3,000,000,000 Hz
Wavelength Range: 100,000 m - 0.001 m
Velocity: 300,000,000 m/s (c)
PURPOSE:
communications
radar
astronomy ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: "the entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves" ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION: "The entire range of radiation extending in frequency from approximately 1023 hertz to 0 hertz or, in corresponding wavelengths, from 10-13 centimeter to infinity and including, in order of decreasing frequency, cosmic-ray photons, gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, microwaves, and radio waves." used a spark gap attached to induction coil and one on antenna receiver; waves created by coil's sparks were picked up by antenna 1865
1888
1896
1899
19001919
1935 existence theorized by James Maxwell
Henrich Hertz proves their existence
Guglielmo Marconi patents first wireless telegraphy system
first radio link between England and France (Marconi)
first human speech transmission (R.A. Fessenden)
shortwave radio developed
FM radio developed wireless communication
radio
television
radar
cellular and cordless phones medical imaging
MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging
uses radio waves and magnetism to create picture of organs and internal structures
capsule endoscopy
swallowed capsule takes pictures (transmitted via radio waves) of gastrointenstinal tract mainly communication uses
two-way radio to report to different part of workplace (e.g. construction sites)
component in controlling heavy machinery such as cranes (possibly) cancer treatments
John Kanzius found that radio waves might kill certain tumors when nanoparticles added
future astronomical discoveries
radio waves already used in radio telescopes
can detect further pulsars and quasars CAT (CT) & PET SCANS TYPE OF WAVE:
electromagnetic (X-ray) (transversal wave)
RELATION TO ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
uses X-rays, a form of electromagnetic radiation
Frequency Range: 30,000,000,000,000,000 (3x10^16) Hz - 30,000,000,000,000,000,000 (3x10^19) Hz
Wavelength Range: 0.00000001 (10^-8) m - 0.00000000001 (10^-11) m
Velocity: 300,000,000 m/s
PURPOSE:
to provide 3-dimensional images of the body's structures 1953
1971
1973

1975
mid 1970s
1979

1980s
2000 Dr. Gordon Brownwell invents precursor of PET
first clinical trials of CAT in UK
first clinical trials of CAT in US
Michael Phelps invents PET scan @ UCLA
first CAT scanner installed in US
CAT scans rapidly develop
Godfrey Hounsfield and McCormack receive Nobel Prize in Medicine
PET scan greatly develops
PET/CT scanner developed N/A Medical Imaging
CAT Scan - Computerized Axial Tomography
uses X-rays to take cross-section (slices) snapshots of the body which are then compiled
used to scan for tumors and growths
PET Scan - Positron Emission Tomography
uses "radioactive positrons (positively charged particles) to detect differences in metabolic and chemical activity in the body"
shows function and areas of increased activity (possible cancer sites)
used to scan for cancerous growths N/A will continue to be used to scan the body's structures and organs INFRARED WAVES TYPE OF WAVE:
Electromagnetic (Transverse Wave)
RELATION TO ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
between microwave and visible light
Frequency Range: 429,000,000,000,000 Hz - 300,000,000,000 Hz
Wavelength Range: 0.0000007 m - 0.001 m
Velocity: 300,000,000 m/s (c)
PURPOSE:
thermal imaging
astronomy
remote control signals
heat 1800
1847 William Herschel discovers infrared light
A. H. L. Fizeau and J. B. L. Foucault show infrared radiation has same properties as visible light can reflect, refract, and form an interference pattern measured the difference in temperature between colors in visible spectrum; placed thermometers within each color; temperature increased from blue to red, and even beyond the red end of the visible spectrum (infrared) remote controls (as in the television's)
heating (as in food)
fiber optic cables
some lasers and LEDs thermal imaging (thermography)
"can show areas of the body where the temperature is much higher or lower than normal, thus indicating some medical problem"
determining distant temperatures
radiometers in heat-seeking devices in missiles
night-vision technology infrared thermal imaging to determine heat leaks
heat curing of coatings like paint astronomy
already used in telescopes to produce clearer images of faroff bodies
can be continued to be used to discover more about astronomical bodies like galaxies
monitoring of forest fires and overall global warming ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT OVERVIEW AND PURPOSE TYPE OF WAVE:
Electromagnetic (Transverse Wave)
RELATION TO ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
between visible light and x-rays
Frequency Range: 7,500,000,000,000,000 Hz - 30,000,000,000,000,000 Hz
Wavelength Range: 0.00000004 m - 0.00000001 m
Velocity: 300,000,000 m/s (c)
PURPOSE:
sterilization
vitamin D production
astronomy all UV light comes from the sun 1801 Johann Ritter conducts an experiment that leads to the discovery of ultraviolet light Ritter knew that photographic paper would turn black more rapidly in blue light than in red light; exposed the paper to light beyond violet - the paper turned black, proving the existence of ultraviolet light PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER vitamin D production
UV-B rays
suntanning (or tanning beds)
UV-B rays (also harmful to DNA)
fluorescent paint and dyes (highlighters and glow in the dark paint)
fluorescent lighting
some lasers vitamin D production stimulation
treats and prevents rickets
sterilization/disinfection
forensic examinations used in the production of microprocessors (draws the circuit design onto the silicon chip)
curing special glues astronomy
already used in learning about the structures of stars and galaxies, the ozone layer, and aurora on Earth and Jupiter
can lead to further discoveries in these areas GAMMA WAVES TYPE OF WAVE:
Electromagnetic (Transverse Wave)
RELATION TO ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
beyond x-rays (highest frequency - farthest right)
Frequency Range: greater than 3,000,000,000,000,000,000 Hz
Wavelength Range: less than 0.0000000001 m
Velocity: 300,000,000 m/s (c)
PURPOSE:
medical treatments and diagnoses
industrial applications
structural analysis (engineering) OVERVIEW AND PURPOSE GAMMA TYPE OF WAVE:
Electromagnetic (Transverse Wave)
RELATION TO ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
beyond x-rays (highest frequency - farthest right)
Frequency Range: greater than 3,000,000,000,000,000,000 Hz
Wavelength Range: less than 0.0000000001 m
Velocity: 300,000,000 m/s (c)
PURPOSE:
medical treatments and diagnoses
industrial applications
structural analysis (engineering) 1900
1903
1914 Paul Villard discovers gamma rays
term "gamma ray" coined by Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford proves they're a form of electromagnetic radiation N/A medical imaging
PET (Positron Emittance Tomography)
images using technetium-99m (a tracer that emits gamma radiation picked up by a camera)
can sterilize instruments
cancer treatments
effective in destroying human tissue, used in a concentrated "gamma knife" to destroy specific tumor cells
structural analysis and evaluation - shows weak spots in metal objects used in airports to scan luggage
Cobalt 60 produces low amounts of gamma radiation, allows it to kill undesirable organisms in foods while keeping it safe for human consumption
used to detect weaknesses and cracks in metal castings development of gold lenses to refract gamma rays, can lead to further research into lithium in:
depression therapy (will be able to determine where lithium accumulates and why it has psychological effects)
lithium ion batteries (optimization goals)
better cancer treatments
detection of radioactive or explosive compounds
determining compositions of other planets RADAR TYPE OF WAVE:
Electromagnetic (Transverse Wave)
RELATION TO ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
lowest frequencies, longest wavelengths
Frequency Range: 3,000 Hz - 3,000,000,000 Hz
Wavelength Range: 100,000 m - 0.001 m
Velocity: 300,000,000 m/s (c)
PURPOSE:
detect the presence of an object
determine the distance of an object
determine the speed of an object
map something CAN FIGURE OUT DISTANCE OF OBJECT BASED ON TIME TAKEN TO BOUNCE BACK TO THE RECEIVER 1865
1888
1896
1904

1922
1939 existence of radio waves theorized by James Maxwell
Henrich Hertz proves their existence
Guglielmo Marconi patents first wireless telegraphy system
Christian Hülsmeyer of Germany patents an obstacle detector and ship navigation device based on Hertz's findings
first demonstration of radar effect on Potomac River
radar developed able to detect ships and planes at sea no EVERYDAY uses COMMONLY used to detect objects, their distance, and their speed
examples:
air traffic control
marine radars to avoid collisions
weather radar to locate weather patterns
space radar to be pointed at Earth
radar gun used to control speeding
missile guidance and detection (occasionally) used to monitor cardiac and respiratory rates (uncommon) marine radar helps cargo ships' marine navigation - mainly being able to locate nearby ships to avoid collisions pneumoscan - will be able to provide on the go detection of pneumothorax, a life-threatening air gap between the chest wall and the lungs caused by trauma
domestic gun detection (i.e. at schools, etc.) TSUNAMI AND WAVE EROSION TYPE OF WAVE:
Mechanical (SURFACE Wave)
RELATION TO ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
none
PURPOSE:
none tsunamis and water waves are examples of SURFACE wave motion (a type of mechanical wave motion)
water particles "roll" and oscillate, but DO NOT move along with the wave
the energy passes through the rolling particles, but the particles themselves are not moving onward how they rotate depends on the depth of the water transverse AND longitudinal components as the waves approach land, the land beneath interferes with the wave motion and the top overtakes the bottom recreational use and for sports if a wave breaks parallel to the shoreline, a RIP CURRENT occurs (causes a lot of erosion) if a wave breaks parallel to the shoreline, a RIP CURRENT occurs (causes a lot of erosion) energy production - wave motion has kinetic energy, which can be converted into electricity with generators same as previously stated although wave energy production is small today, it might later become a major source of power for the US PowerBuoy X-RAYS TYPE OF WAVE:
electromagnetic (X-ray) (transversal wave)
RELATION TO ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
between ultraviolet and gamma rays
Frequency Range: 30,000,000,000,000,000 (3x10^16) Hz - 30,000,000,000,000,000,000 (3x10^19) Hz
Wavelength Range: 0.00000001 (10^-8) m - 0.00000000001 (10^-11) m
Velocity: 300,000,000 m/s
PURPOSE:
to provide a view into the internal structure of the human body 1876
1887

1892
1895

1896 Eugen Goldstein coined the term "cathode rays" (as in cathode ray tubes)
Nikola Telsa uses Crookes tube and own tubes to experiment with x-rays (uknown to him at first)
Henrich Hertz proved x-rays could penetrate thin metal foil
Wilhelm Roentgen discovers x-rays (could see his hand's bones when near cathode ray tube - took picture of his wife's)
Thomas Edison perfects the x-ray machine medical imaging
x-rays (radiographs/skiagraphs) allow one to see the internal structures of the body (bones)
also used in CAT scans
can halt growth of cells or destroy them-used to destroy tumors and sometimes treat leukemia and bursitis
x-ray microscopy airport security scans (luggage)
can be used to learn if paintings are authentic; show changes made in the original work, or an earlier painting under the surface one used to inspect canned goods and packaged products; conveyor belt passes them past x-ray beams to see if improperly filled or with a foreign substance
used to separate beryl from granite and inspect airplane/car parts, rubber goods, plastics, metal castings, and others astronomy
currently in use
show temperature/composition of suns and stars
have shown better pictures of supernovas
will probably play an increased role in astronomy later on REFLECTION AND REFRACTION REFLECTION REFRACTION TYPE OF WAVE:
none
RELATION TO ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
none
PURPOSE:
to describe WAVE BEHAVIOR REFLECTION when a wave reaches a barrier, it will always bounce off and reflect at the same angle with which they approach the barrier works with MECHANICAL and ELECTROMAGNETIC waves REFRACTION as a wave passes from one MEDIUM to another, the wave's direction, speed, and wavelength will change REFLECTION
mirrors to see ourselves
radar and sonar
playing instruments (constructive/destructive interference between reflected and incident waves)
REFRACTION
lenses:
in our eye
in glasses to correct vision
to magnify
prisms
mirages
hearing aids (reflect sound waves until focused into ear) sonar and radar to avoid neighboring shipping barges on the sea improvements in optical technologies (though they're already very advanced) LENSES AND POLARIZATION TYPE OF WAVE:
none
RELATION TO ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM:
none
PURPOSE:
to adjust vision; to filter vision LENSES "a carefully ground or molded piece of transparent material that refracts light rays in such as way as to form an image" DOUBLE CONVEX DOUBLE CONCAVE POLARIZATION *lenses were first used in Ancient Assyria almost 3,000 years ago; the first written accounts of them were in Ancient Greece and Rome over 2,000 years ago UNPOLARIZED LIGHT - light vibrating in more than one plane
POLARIZED LIGHT - light waves in which vibration occurs in a single plane *Danish mathematician Erasmus Bartholinus first described the polarizing Iceland Spar in 1669 Lenses:
lenses in corrective glasses
our eye (to see)
Polarization
sunglasses
3-D glasses corrective lenses (as previously stated)
polarized light useful when analyzing some viruses
photoelastic stress analysis
polarized light used to cram data through communications networks' optic fibers " different optically active compounds can rotate the polarization of light by different amounts and in different directions"
one day, it might be possible to determine the disease by shining polarized light into patients' eyes http://s3.amazonaws.com/files.posterous.com/temp-2011-06-29/roImHvwobophavhgCrtBAInJvaqdxgkaGmIfGhDyjbdiJEDnjjsxFEyjualf/domino-effect.jpg.scaled1000.jpg?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJFZAE65UYRT34AOQ&Expires=1365132102&Signature=Zj6uXT13980bUSHHi9EhHMoSy%2BE%3D
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