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Story of my life(literally)

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ryan milne

on 16 May 2014

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Transcript of Story of my life(literally)

Background photo by t.shigesa
The story of Ryan Milne
In the Beginning...
-1 of 4 germ cells created through meiosis are passed on

-DNA replicates, synapsis occurs
-Cell splits into 2 dipoloid cells
-Each diploid cell into 2 haploid cells
-4 daughter cells total
From there my cells started to divide in an organized pattern!

parts of cell
bonding(alpha beta, covalent, van der wall condensation/hydrolisis/ionic)
dna replication
mitosis(regulation, cdk, breakdown of mitosis protiens)
development axis symmetry, induction
transcription(rna vs dna)/translation
born-cellular respiration/fermentaion/phosforlation)
osmosis, hyper/hypotonic/diffusion(passive/active transport) sodium potassium pump
properties of water
get sick, virus(cancer)

functional groups somewhere

And then I became...
-2 haploid cells come together to make a diploid cell
One day...
-Rough ER: synthesizes cell secreted proteins/lysosome

-Smooth ER: synthesizes carbohydrates/lipids

-cytoskeleton: microfilaments, microtubles, intermediate filaments

-intercellular junctions: tight junction, gap junction, dezmosome

-Centrosomes: create spindle fibers during mitosis
From there...
: turn rna into proteins
: supplies energy to the cell
breakdown/store toxic material
adds cofactors to proteins to give shape

: housing of the cell, made of phospholipids
stores dna
solution that fills the empty space of the cell
: transports proteins in and out of the cell
Other Parts
Before we go any further into the life of my cells...we must talk about the basic molocules that make them up!!
4 types
Starch(Plant stored energy)
Glycogen(Animal stored energy)
Cellulose(Plant structure)
Chitin(Animal structure)
**Structural polysaccharides have their "sore thumb" on alternating sides**
Main purpose: provide energy and sturcture!!
Nucleic Acids
-consist of a phosphate group, a pentose sugar and a nitrogen base

-only found in DNA or RNA

-present in living(eukaryotes) and non-living(viruses) things

-used for transcribing and expressing the genome
Also known as fats!
can be either..
-saturated(straight non-polar tails) or solid fats

-unsaturated(bent non- polar tails containing cis bonds) or liquid fats such as oils
**3 can be linked together to form a triglyceride**
Lipids also play a crucial role in..
The Phospholipid Bilayer
a.k.a. your cell membrane!
-hydrophillic exterior/hydrophobic exterior

-allows for only certain moloclules to fit through due to exterior polarity and interior non-polarity
just in case you are a little confused!
Here are some terms that might clear things up!
polar: a molocule that is slighly positive and slightly negative

non-polar: a molocule that has no slight charge

hydrophilic: being polar and attracted to water

hydrophobic: being non-polar and not attracted to water

endergondic: a reaction that requires energy(builds up)

exergondic: a reaction that releases energy(breaks down)

**remember: biology is all about how things fit into each other(but not perfectly!!), and building things(requiring energy) up and breaking them down**
we also need to know about bonding!
everything is made of atoms, and atoms bond together in different ways!
covalent: electron is shared between two atoms

ionic: electron is taken by another atom

hydrogen: attraction between partially positive and partially negative molocules due to covalent bonding of hydrogen

van der waals: instantaneous attraction between rapid moving electron of one atom and the nucleus of another atom

condensation/dehydration: reaction that builds molocules up and produces water

hydrolisis: reaction of molocules breaking down that uses water
so now we must move to the most complicated micro structure within the cell...
**proteins are resposible for all work done in your body, both chemical and mechanical**
-made up of chains of amino acids(held together by peptide bonds) called polypeptides

-20 different amino acids, same top structure but different side chain

-have 4 levels of strucure
the most common proteins are...
**make unatural chemical reaction occur by lowering activation energy**
-have an active site, where the substrate fits, and is then broken apart or built up

-has a allosteric site, that can be inhibited by chemical(that fits!) so it can be turned on or off

-competitive inhibitor: competes with substrate for the active site, fits into active site and turns it off

-non-competitive inhibitor/activator: chemical that fits into allosteric site to turn on or off

-feedback inhibition: the product of an enzyme is what turns it off(so it doesn't over produce product!)
now that we must talk about the missing link that pulls the cells all together...
-consist of phyosphate, sugar and a nucleic acid

-double helix

-has a 3 end and a 5 end, 5 end it the "sore thumb" of ribose

-stored in the nucleus

-half from Mom and half from Dad
Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid
*DNA is the genetic code for making proteins*

Think of it as a recipe book!
Since each half of my DNA is from my parents, I am theoretically made up of half of my Mom and half of my Dad. This is why I display some traits of each of them, because there are some parts of my DNA that 1 parent may have given me which the other didn't.
To examine this we use...
1 of my parents has brown hair, and the other has blonde hair. If A is dominant to a, we can see that I had a 50% chance of having brown hair.
*study of genetically inherited traits*
now that we understand how my first cell was made and how it functioned, we must move on to my development!
The first thing that we must know is how a cell divides, and the first step of cell division is....
DNA Replication
DNA helicase: unzips genes

Topoisomerase: release tension in DNA

Primase: primes DNA with 1 corresponding Rna

DNA Polymerase III: attatches to Primase, puts down rest of Rna

DNA Polymerase I: replaces Rna with DNA

Ligase: "glues" DNA back togeather
*builds along the 5' end means builing your own 3'*
*always replicates from 3' to 5'*
now we can move on to the rest of cell division!!
-5 phases: profase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase

-cell recieves growth factors, DNA replicates, produces cyclin

-cylcin fits into cdk making mpf, which turns on other proteins that are used for mitosis

-if a cell is in G it will never divide again(like brain cells!!)
*cyclin is broken down by the mitosis proteins created by mpf, to regulate mitosis(if mitosis never stops, you have cancer!!)*
-goes from 1 cell, to 8 cells, to the blastula then to the gastula

-the zygote does not grow as it divides, it more or less "cuts itslef in half" again and again

-1st development is axis establishment(anterior, posterior, dorsal, ventral)

-2nd development is segmentation(head, thorax, abdomen)

-3rd development is the "parts" on appendages(fingers, eyes, etc.)

-the opening in the gastula is the establishment of the end of the digestive system
so we may wonder, "how does a muscle cell become a muscle cell?" or "how does a skin cell become a skin cell?" and the answer to that is.....
-cells become certain cells by the activation of certain master genes

-master genes code for proteins that turn off other genes that a certain cell would not need(an eye cell would turn off the gene for making insulin)

-master genes are activated by certain proteins that are put into the zygote during development
so with all this talk about proteins, we might ask ourselves, "how are proteins made in the first place??"

There are 2 parts to this, the first part is...

*Going from DNA to RNA*
-RNA polymerase reads each nucleotide of DNA and matches it with it's corresponding RNA nucleotide

-falls off DNA strand when it reaches the polyadlilation signal
-splicosomes take a finished RNA segment and cut out the parts that it may not want

-what is cut out is called an intron, what is sent out is called an exon

-a 5' cap and a poly A tail are then attatched to the exon RNA. They are attatched at the ends and makes it more stable and easier for the RNA to leave the nucleus and attatch to a ribosome(for translation)

-the RNA that leaves the nucleus to be read is called mRNA
From there..
which brings us to our 2nd step..
-RNA exon leaves the nucleus and attatches to a ribosome

-small subunit of ribosome attatches at the bottom and reads the RNA in sequences of 3's called codons until it hits the start codon

-once start codon is read, large subunit attatches and matches each codon with a corresponding anti-codon which is attatched to a tRNA molocule

-each tRNA molocule is attatched to a specific amino acid, which gets attatched to another amino acid from the previous tRNA molocule, eventually making an amino acid chain as the ribosome reads through the mRNA strand

-the amino acid chain eventually folds up into a protein
Eventually, after my cells divide and my embryo grew...I was born!!
Obviously since I am living, I have to use energy for my cells to do...cellular things! (such as building up molocules or proteins!)
there are 2 ways my cells produce energy, the most common way is...
Cellular Respiration
-the body's most efficient way of making ATP(cell's main energy source)

-turn sugar into carbon dioxide, and oxygen into water

-makes ATP by creating and using a concentration gradient of protons to power ATP recharging mechanism
in case you wanna know more about it!
the other way of making energy is...
*not as effecient as cellular respiration*
-pyruvate is final electron acceptor, as opposed to oxygen

-only makes 2 ATP per glucose molocule, as opposed to 36-38
2 Types
-lactic acid fermentation(creates lactic acid)
-alcohol fermentation(creates alcohol)
Eventually, after using so much energy...I got thirsty!!
After 3 months of dividing, this was me!!
There are also a few "small groups" that appear in many different molocules throughout the cell, they are called functional groups
So what happens when I drink water??
**idea that water wants to go wherever "stuff" is**
-since alot of "stuff" is in your cells, when you drink water, it naturally wants to go into your cells to fufill a function(like condensation/dehydration bonds)

-if you have more "stuff" outside of your cells(like when you drink alcohol or salt water) all of the water in your cells naturally want to leave, causing you to be dehydrated(or have alcohol poisoning!)
unfortunatly, sometimes i got sick(from playing around outside in the leaves!), and what may have caused it was...
**non-living things**
-consist of a capsid shell, genetic material and a tail

-attatch to a cell and injects genetic material, can be DNA or RNA

-cell reads genetic material, makes proteins that create more viruses and then destroys itself

-sometimes hides in the nucleus for long periods of time to remain undetected by the immune system, but will eventually infect the cell and cause flare ups(such as herpes)
**vaccines are solutions of virus capsids without thier genetic material, so the immune system can recodnize the shape of the virus for when it gets the real virus**
Water also has some pretty neat properties as well as osmosis!
Another key concept we must discuss is how things get in and out of a cell, and how we maintain equilibrium
Passive and Active Transport
passive transport
: natural transport of something through simple diffusion, not requiring work

active transport
: having to do work to transport something where it does not want to go
-some particles like ions(changed atoms) naturally want to repel each other when they are put together

-they may want to go inside of a cell, but if it is not wanted in the cell, the cell may use active transport to remove it

-most passive or active transport is done by the use of integral proteins, either channel or carrier
**the goal of passive and active transport is to maintain equilibrium, regardless of how even or not even "equilibrium" is**
Receptor-mediated Endocytosis:
cells have receptors for certain molocules that only bring themselves in when their molocule is attached
cells bringing in large materials(such as food)
cells bringing in random fluids
Another way that we get things into our cells is through...
To conclude, everything that we have talked about so far: chemistry of life, interactions within cells, genetics, production of protiens, cell division, human development and disease...is not even every area of Biology. Most of what has been displayed here is a product of the past 100 years or less, and this is only the tip of the iceberg.
Hepatitis E
Penicillium Stoloniferum
Because of modern technology, we can see viruses up close and in color!!
-idea that all particles want to spread out from each other

-by making particles go against where they want to go, we can create potential energy(like in the inner membrane of the mitocondria!)

-water will go to wherever more "stuff" is, but the thing is..."stuff" diffuses!
Osmosis is pretty important when we talk about...
This is how we take "stuff" that diffuses and put it where it does not want to be, and this is also how we get water where we want it(because of osmosis)!
Soduim Potassium Pump
a classic example of active transport is...
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