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Shivam Patel

on 10 June 2014

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Transcript of PIRACY

- Seen as "coastal defense against foreigners"
Somali Pirates
-Became a threat after 2nd phase of Somali Civil War (1991)

Why is it an issue?
Modern Piracy
The Golden Age
By: Shivam Patel
Abir Hassan
Akarsh Sardana

Piracy: “illegal acts of violence or detention” committed on the high seas against ships or aircraft.
Origins & History
2000 years ago, Piracy began in ancient Greece when sea robbers
threatened over-the-seas trade.

Roman ships were raided for grain
and olive oil.
which translates to

were known for attacking shipments and coastal settlements.
The Golden Age
of Piracy circa 1620 and 1720.
1500's to 1900's different types of pirates
came up:
privateers, buccaneers, and corsairs
1500s to 1800s
Pirates were "legal" workers for the governments.

Governments issued ‘letters of marque’
which license pirates to plunder alien ships
Piracy was punishable by death
Most famous privateer of this era was Francis Drake of England.
Stole from Spanish treasure ships
returning from the New Worlds.
pirates that sailed
in the West Indies
Muslim or Christian pirates
that worked in the Mediterranean
Ching Shih
: Female Pirate; owned a community of 80,000 pirates
Majority of organized piracy
ended by 1850
Seaborne piracy costs at least $
13 billion
internationally / year
> Damages economy of developing nations
> Particularly in areas such as:
> waters between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean
> Strait of Malacca and Singapore
> Somalian C ast
Modern Pirates
Favor small boats and take advantage of few crew members on cargo vessels.
Heavy use of technology
sonar systems
speed boats
Machine guns
Navies have decreased in size since the Cold War ended, making organized Piracy easier.
> 239 attacks
> 77 crew members kidnapped
> 15 attacks resulted in murder
35% increase
in attacks involving guns
> 24 more attacks than previous year
2008- 2009:
> the number of attacks involving guns has rose from
76 to 176
> Pirates captured 1,181 sailors aboard 53 ships
> costs increased $7 to $12
since 2009
264 attacks recorded worldwide in 2013 (40% drop since Somali piracy peaked in 2011)
West Africa
- Impedes delivery of shipments and increases shipping expenses
>Costs 6.6 to 6.9 billion per year
-Industry of "profiteers" has risen due to piracy
-Insurance companies, Mercenaries/private security, etc.
Why it started:
- Chaos of Civil War
- Poverty
- Unemployment
- Illegal Fishing
- Foreign fish trawlers overfished
- Toxic Waste
All constrained local fisherman's ability to earn livings --> Needed alternate sources of income
- Flourished due to political disintegration
- Pirates funded to carry out raids, get weapons from Yemen (some groups have ties with Al-Qaeda and Al-Shabaab)
- Mostly take ships and crew hostage for ransom money, paid by corporations
-Pirates in Somalia result in less ships
using Suez Canal
-Maersk Alabama hijacking in 2009
- May, 2010; Somali pirates seized a Bulgarian-flagged ship in the Gulf of Aden.
- January 2011 thirteen Somali pirates seized the
Samho Jewelry
Combating Piracy
Handbook “Best Management Practices to Deter Piracy off the Coast of Somalia and in the Arabian Sea Area”
"Self Protective measures"
- rigging the deck of the ship with razor wire
- rigging fire-hoses to spray sea-water over the side of the ship
- hardening the bridge against gunfire
- firing flares at the pirates
- Increased patrols in Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean
- Armed guards on merchant ships
- Increased Naval presence and more weapons to defend against pirates
- Success of piracy acts on sea decreased dramatically by the end of 2011
- four vessels hijacked in the last quarter versus 17 in the last quarter of the preceding year.
- pirate attacks in the Indian Ocean had by October 2012 dropped to a six-year low.

- Attempted hijackings fell from 237 in 2011 to 75 the following year, with successful attacks plummeting from 28 in 2011 to 14 in 2012.
-2013 seen as collapse of Somalian Piracy as attacks dwindled and successful hijackings have been eliminated

- With decline of piracy in Gulf of Aden, it has increased in Gulf of Guinea
- Shifted to West African coast (Ivory Coast) and in the Gulf of Guinea as it is seen to be a future hub for oil

- Most attacks take place in Nigeria’s Niger Delta region
also attacks in Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea and Togo
Scope of the Problem
- Different from Somali pirates
- Pirates in West Africa also steal goods, particularly oil. Many attacks end up with crew members injured or killed.
- Damages Economy
- losses affect international insurance rates and other trade-related costs

- Spike in piracy attacks led to insurance companies to list Benin, Nigeria and other nearby countries’ water in same risk level as Somalia

- Pirate attacks in West Africa mainly occur in territorial waters, terminals and harbors rather than in the high seas.

- Pirates in the region operate a well-funded criminal industry
-Nov 2011; Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon assembled a team to examine the situation.
- The United States military Africa Command (Africom) started joint naval training exercises with affected West African countries.

- Nov 2012; the United Nations Security Council held an open meeting to discuss piracy in the Gulf of Guinea
-Though much has been debated and suggested, Pirate attacks have been on the rise and more must be done fast.
- International Maritime Bureau (IMB)
- US Maritime Administration (MARAD)
-Operation Ocean Shield
- Maritime Piracy Humanitarian Response Program
- Oceans Beyond Piracy (OBP)
Environmental action groups such as Sea Shepherd Conservation Society have been accused of engaging in piracy and terrorism

Debate Questions!
1. How can Piracy be stopped? What is/are the best piracy prevention method(s)? Keep in mind the immense cost of implementing these methods which may enlarge the loss, and keep in mind the private security companies and insurance companies which profit in this conflict with piracy.

2. Who/what is exactly responsible for the increased violence of piracy?
-The private security companies which escalate war on pirates and profit from it
-The pirates themselves who attack and seize ships to extort money and goods
-The commercial boats which overfish and dump toxic waste into African waters, forcing people to resort to piracy
-The crime syndicates which fund pirates and provide them with their advanced weaponry
-Anything not listed above
Piracy on Falcon lake
-"turf war" between drug cartels
-majority of crime linked with Los Zetas
-small boats
-seize fisherman, rob tourists, smuggle drugs, attack fleets of other cartels
-2010: many attacks on US boaters crossing Mexican waters
-2 US tourists jet skiing on Mexican side of lake attacked
-male: David Michael Hartley-fatally shot
-wife: managed to escape-reached US side

Piracy in the Strait of Malacca
-unresolved threat to mariners-dates back to 14th century
-important passageway /w China and India
-Malacca Straits Patrol (MSP)
-1/4 of world's oil exports
-April 22, 2014
-oil tanker raided
-crew members tied up
-3 million liters of diesel stolen
US program STOP (Strategy for
Targeting Organized Piracy)
Full transcript