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Stem Cell Research

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Lobke Rotteveel

on 6 November 2014

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Transcript of Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell Research
"The centerpiece of regenerative medicine"
What is a Stem Cell?
- Origin of all cells
- Capable of regeneration
Type Specific Stem Cells
- Neural Stem Cells
- Skin Stem Cells
- Hematopoietic (Blood Stem Cells)
General Stem Cells
- Fetal Stem Cells
- Embryonic
- Pleuripotent
Uses of Stem Cells
Cell therapy
Muscular degradation
Spinal cord injury
Heart disease
Artificially combining DNA to produce unique individuals
Organ and limb generation
Organs can be grown in "organ scaffolding"
Possible limb generation
Unethical: Embryonic stem cells
The research does not respect the value of human life
Embryonic cells are cells with a potential for life
Obtaining stem cells from an embryo involves killing of the developing embryo
Human life begins at conception

Ethical vs Unethical
Why should we consider ethics?

The ethical Debate
Why should this be supported ethically?
Many argue stem cell research is unethical because of the use of human embryos.

However, there is much more to it than that.

We must consider a number of factors.
When does human life begin?
Cell differentiation and coordination low until day 16.
Early embryos do not mirror human life.
Use of cells before this period does not harm human life.
The moral status of human beings
There is a person providing these cells to research.
It is their decision to donate embryonic cells to the cause.
May be through infertility treatment, frozen embryos that will be discarded anyway, and more.
Alternate Methods
Embryonic cells are no longer the only option.
Induced pluripotent cells are stem cells created from adult cells.
Provides a safe alternative to embryonic cells at conception.
Stem cell information [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; [updated 2009 Apr 28; cited 2014 Nov 02] Available from: http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/pages/default.aspx

Stem cells background information [internet]. Edinburgh (UK): MRC centre for regenerative medicine, institute for stem cell research; [cited 2014 31 Oct]. Available from: http://www.eurostemcell.org/files/BackgroundInfoStemCells.pdf

History of stem cell research – a timeline [internet]. Boston (MA): Children’s hospital Boston; [cited 2014 Nov 01] Available from: http://stemcell.childrenshospital.org/about-stem-cells/history/

2010 IVF Statistics [Internet]. 2010. Colorado:Colorado Center for Reproductive Medicine; [cited November 2014] . Available from: http://www.colocrm.com/AboutCCRM/SuccessRates/2010IVFStatistics.aspx

Embryonic Stem Cell Research: An Ethical Dilemma [Internet]. Europe: EuroStemCell; [updated 2011 Mar 23; cited 2014 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.eurostemcell.org/factsheet/embyronic-stem-cell-research-ethical-dilemma

Education: Stem Cell Research [Internet]. The USA: American Life League; [cited 2014 Nov 3]. Available from: http://www.all.org/nav/index/heading/OQ/cat/MTkw/

Schmidt F. 2013. Stem Cell Cloning Remains Highly Controversial. Deutsche Welle [Internet]. [updated 2013 May 19; cited 2014 Nov 05]. Available from: http://www.dw.de/stem-cell-cloning-remains-highly-controversial/a-16824112

Learn.Genetics. The stem cell debate: Is it over? [Internet]. University of Utah, 2014 [cited 2014 Nov 4]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/stemcells/scissues/

Siegel, A. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ethics of stem cell research. [Internet]. 2013. [cited 2014 Nov 4]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/stem-cells/

National institute of health. VI. What are induced pluripotent stem cells? [Internet] Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009. [cited 2014 Nov 4]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/pages/basics10.aspx

Bernard L, Parham L. Ethical issues in stem cell research. [Internet] The Endocrine Society, 2009. [cited Nov 4]; [About 37 screens]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2726839/

Stem cell transplant [Internet]. Unknown: Canadian cancer society[ cited 2014 Nov 4]. Available from: http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/stem-cell-transplant/?region=on

Mayo clinic staff. 2014 July 17. Tests and procedures: Stem cell transplant [Internet]. Mayo clinic [updated 2014 July 17; cited 2014 Nov 4] Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/stem-cell-transplant/basics/definition/prc-20013565

Stem cell information [Internet]. National institutes of health [updated 2010 Sept 13; cited 2014 Nov 4]. Available from: http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/pages/basics3.aspx

Stem Cell Network [Internet]. [Date unknown]. Ottawa (On): University of Ottawa; [cited 2014 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/index.php?page=what-are-stem-cells

Thomson H. 2014 Apr 28. New Scientist [Internet]. [Place of publication unknown]: Reed Business Information; [updated 2014 Apr 28; cited 2014 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25474-insulinmaking-cells-created-by-dollycloning-method.html#.VFVNWpUtDIU

[2009] Stem Cell Information [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services;[cited 2014 Nov 1] Available at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/pages/basics6.aspx
TriviA question 1
How many antigens must match between the donor and recipient for a transplant to be successful?

trivia question 2
What is the difference between embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells?
"Doomed Embryos"

In-Vitro Fertilization

Thousands discarded daily; is it not better to use them for research?

Stem Cell Transplants

Retrieval from donor
HLA Typing
Societal benefits vs. Suffering
Do embryos suffer?
Rejection of Transplanted Cells (GVHD)
Stem Cells Can be Harvested from:
Bone Marrow
Peripheral Blood
Umbilical Cords
What do we think?
Moral line?
How far is too far?
Side effects?
Why put another organism at a higher chance of health complications through their lifespan if it is not necessary?
May 15th, 2013
Oregon Health and Science University
Reprogrammed adult skin cells
--No destroyed embryos in process
Why stem cell research is unethical
why stem cell research is ethical
Full transcript