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Courtney Geary

on 21 May 2013

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Transcript of India

INDIA The History of India... Where to Begin? The first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, described the history of India as "A bundle of contradictions held together by strong but invisible threads." HUMAN KIND'S HOME: -Using chemical dating, archeologists have discovered human remains in India dating up to 75,000 years ago.
- Since then, there have been many civilizations in India. The Indus Valley Civilization The Indus Valley Civilization is the first known civilization in India, existing in 3000 BC. Many of the cities were along the Indus River- the river that India gets it's name from. The people of the Indus River civilization created very diverse arts, and even made things like dice, used very intricate trading systems, and may have even been the first to use the wheel. Evidence of Hinduism can be found in Indus Valley Artifacts. However, little is known of the Indus Valley Civilization. Hello Hinduism. The Vedic Era This is the period where the sacred Hindu religious texts were created. Because these texts were not written down until millenniums later, there is no known definite beginning or end to this period. A Time of Conquests After the Vedic Age, Buddhism and Jainism also started to take a foothold in India. City states also formed across the subcontinent. During this period, the Persian, Greek, and Mauryan Empires all invaded India, primarily in the northern regions. Golden Age Of India After the dissolving of the Mauryan Empire, City States arose in India, and spent the next 500 years feuding with each other, giving rise to new empires. There was a mix of both Hindu and Muslim culture. It was during this period that India began to flourish. The Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya, where the Buddha is said to have attained englightenment. The Ellora Caves are a series of temples carved into cliff faces, built during the 7th-10th centuries. The temples are designated for three different religions- showing that there was religious harmony at the time of their construction. INVASION OF THE MUGHALS -Very memorable period of Indian History.

-Taj Mahal built during this period

- Europeans begin exploring

- East India Company surfaces Hamayun's Tomb The Red Fort THE BRITISH RAJ -East India Company gains influence across India.
-After the Sepoy Rebellion, East India Company forced to reorganize army.
-India becomes directly governed by the crown. Positives and Negatives of the British Raj Positives Negatives Introduced Railway System
Introduced Postal System
Modernized some of India's legal practices.
Introduced Educaltional System Caused India to be one of the poorest nations in the world
Controlled Indian government completely, limited the freedoms of the Indian people.
India unable to farm for their own purposes. Gandhi Modern Indian Government and Political System After The Revolution Muslims wary of being governed by only-Hindu government.
Pakistan splits from India. Current Issue: India-Pakistan Borders KASHMIR Kashmir is a beautiful region in Northwest India. It is claimed by both India and Pakistan, and is a major point of conflict. Government Similar to the United States
Devided into the Legislative, Judiciary, and Executive Branch.
Vote for a president.
Have a constitution Differences More focus on state governments than national government
Parliamentary system. ECONOMY After the British Raj, India's economy was crippled. Forced India to farm cash crops- lost their self-sufficiency.
Forced India to buy only British goods. Reforms Foreign aid and economic planning has allowed India to begin to be a much stronger economy.
The country still has problems with inflation. Economy Now: Economy based largely on agriculture.
Has one of the fastest growing economies.
Despite growing economy, still one of the poorest countries in the world. Current Issue: Poverty in India About 35% of the Indian population is below the poverty line.
However, it is NOT one of the 20 poorest countries in the world.
It is estimated that 8 Indian states have more poor people than the 26 most poor countries in Africa combined. With such a rapidly growing economy, how does that happen? Current Issue: Overpopulation 1.24 Billion people live in India.
This is near 1/7 of the world's population.
This causes there to be a huge paucity in resources (water and food) GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA The States India has 28 states North Eastern States Includes states such as Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh (the eastern-most state), and Assam.
Some states border the Himalayas, while others border the bay of Bengal. Tea harvest in Assam. Loktak Lake in Manipur Tawang Buddhist monastery in Arunachal Pradesh. Current Issue: Tibetan Conflict REFUGEES Many Tibetan Buddhists have moved into northern of India like Arunachal Pradesh
They are trying to escape the religious impositions put upon them after becoming apart of communist China. East India Includes states West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Bihar.
Farming common- Tea
Largest city is Kolkata Dancers in Orissa Kolkata Central India There are two states in central India, Madyha Pradesh and Chhattisgarh
Some of the oldest ruins in India are found in this region. West India Consists of the states of Goa, Gujarat, and Maharashtra
Most industrialized part of India.
Deserts in the west, mountains in the north, and a sea in the south. Beaches in Goa A deserted town in Gujarat Skyline in Mumbai Current Issue: The Environment POLLUTION IN INDIA Indian has problems with air pollution, water pollution, and garbage.
Much of India's drinking water is very polluted.
Many laws have been passed to try to reduce pollution over the last 15 years. However, India still has a long way to go. South India States such as Kerala and Andhra Pradesh
Most socially and economically advanced part of India.
Tropical climate houseboat in Kerala Waterfalls in Karnataka North India Region that encompasses most northern and eastern states
A variety of different geographical features here: mountains, plains, forests, and deserts. Desert Temples in Rajasthan Golden Temple in Punjab Culture of India Because of India being home to so many different people across time, it has a very diverse culture. Languages Spoken in India There are 22 official languages of India, with over 400 different dialects.

Some of these languages are:
Hindi, Bengali, Gujarati, Sanskrit, Tamil, Urdu... Religions of India 93% of Indians identify themselves as religious.

Many major religions have their roots in India, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism. Hinduism Jainism Sikhism Christianity Islam Buddhism Indian Art Forms Arguably the most important Indian art form is dance.
There are many different types of dance in India, some of the most famous of those being Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, and Odissi, as well as modern forms of dance. Bharatanatyam Odissi Bollywood The Hindi-language music industry of Mumbai. Known for it's dance and color. Art of India Because of India's extensive history, there are centuries and centuries of artwork produced by India. Ancient Indian Art The oldest Indian art is found in religious temples in the form of sculpture and frescoes. Art During the British Raj Art During the Mughal Empire During this period, the Persian tradition of miniature painting was combined with the Indian style of painting. Paintings became much more realistic. . Ragamala Circa: 1650
Painter unknown Portrait of Prince Dara Shikoh
Circa: 1615-1659
Artist Unknown Art during the British Raj lost its luster- however, fueled with new patriotism, during the end of the Raj there was a surge in new art, and experitmention with different styles. Self Portrait Amrita Sher-Gil
Early 20th Century
Three Girls Amrita Sher-Gil
Early 20th Century Modern Indian Art Indian painting, much like art everywhere else, now has a wide variety. More contemporary art is common, however, traditional art is still being created. The subjects of men/women relationships and deities is still common. Untitled Seema Kohli
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