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Moray

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Hugh Hooper

on 20 June 2017

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Transcript of Moray

Moray, N. (1959)
Attention in dichotic listening: affective cues and the influence of instructions.
Background
Key theme: attention

bombarded
Attention is a cognitive process that enables us to select information while rejecting other information.
1950's Research
Focus was on selective, or focused attention
Cherry
Cocktail Party Effect
Cherry carried out a number of studies to investigate auditory selection
Found
: Ps could separate the messages effectively however they were almost entirely unaware of the content of
rejected/blocked/unattended message
Didn't even notice if the language changed!
However aware of some changes, such as speech to a tone or gender change
Summarise the dichotic listening task and shadowing method in your own words
Moray was interested on what types of message, if any, would penetrate this 'block' and be attended to by participants.
Aims
1. To investigate the amount of information Ps could recognise from a rejected/blocked/unattended message
2. To investigate the effect of hearing one's own name in the rejected/blocked/unattended message
3. To investigate the effect of instructions to identify a specific target in the rejected/blocked/unattended message
To provide 'rigorous' empirical test of Cherry's findings
Method
3 laboratory experiments
`
All used dichotic listening tasks - along with shadowing
Materials/controls
Tape recorder with 2 outputs, one to each ear/headphone
Loudness in each ear matched by Ps judgement
4 trials shadowing tasks for practice before each experiment
All passages read by 1 male speaker at rates of 130/150 words a minute
Experiment 1
AIM
: To investigate the amount of information Ps could recognise from a rejected/blocked/unattended message
SAMPLE
: Unknown
PROCEDURE
:
Shadowed message = passage
Blocked message = list of simple words REPEATED 35 times
Free recall of rejected message
Approx 30secs after shadowing Ps given recognition test of 21 words
7 from shadowed passage

7 from blocked message

7 similar, but not present in either
DESIGN?
IVs & DVs?
repeated measures
IVs
1. Shadowed message
2. Rejected message
3. Control
DVs
1. Free recall -unattended message
2. Recognition test
RESULTS:
Using the table above, complete the
results & conclusion section on your handout.
Despite words repeated 35 times during unattended message, Ps struggled to recall them.
Ps on av. recognised more words for the shadowed message compared to both the rejected message & control.
The difference between the new material and that from the shadowed was significant at P≤0.01
CONCLUSION
:
Almost none of the verbal content of a rejected message can penetrate the block set up

Experiment 2
Aim
: To investigate the effect of hearing one's own name in the rejected/blocked/unattended message
Sample
: 12 Ps, all undergrads or research workers, males & females
Moray wanted to test whether an affective cue - a cue that has a strong meaning for the participant - would penetrate the 'block' and be attended to.
The affective cue was the participants own name.
Procedure
:
Ps told responses would be recorded & the main object was to make as few mistakes as possible
Ps were required to shadow 10 short passages in all (10 conditions)
Ps heard 2 passages of light fiction, one to each ear
We assume this was the right ear
Both passages contained an instruction at the start and an instruction within it.
Start instructions were always - "Listen to your right ear" (3 very slight variations)
Messages within varied:
3 x affective instructions
3 X non-affective
4 X no instructions
Moray was interested in whether Ps were more likely to hear the instruction within unattended message if affective (name)
DESIGN?
IVs & DVs?
Repeated measures

1. Affective
2. Non-affective
3. Control
1. No. of times message heard (asked in between passages)
2. If Ps followed instructions
Results
:
Relative frequencies of hearing affective and non-affective instructions when presented in unattended message.
Write the main finding
Ps were more likely to hear affective instruction than non-affective
The difference between the affective & non-affective instructions was significant at p≤0.01.
Conclusion?

An affective message can penetrate the block and be attended to
Experiment 3
Aim
: To investigate the effect of instructions to identify a specific target in the unattended/blocked/rejected message
Sample
: 2 groups of 14 Ps, all undergrads or research workers, males & females
IV
= told they would be asked questions about the shadowed message at the end of each message OR
told specifically to recall as many of the digits (numbers) as possible

DV
= No. of digits recalled
Results
: no significant difference in mean scores between 2 conditions
Conclusion
: Instructions to identify digits in an unattended message is not strong enough to break through the block
Design
: Independent measures
Define the Cocktail Party Effect in your own words
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