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Transcript of Moray
Attention in dichotic listening: affective cues and the influence of instructions.
Key theme: attention
Attention is a cognitive process that enables us to select information while rejecting other information.
Focus was on selective, or focused attention
Cocktail Party Effect
Cherry carried out a number of studies to investigate auditory selection
: Ps could separate the messages effectively however they were almost entirely unaware of the content of
Didn't even notice if the language changed!
However aware of some changes, such as speech to a tone or gender change
Summarise the dichotic listening task and shadowing method in your own words
Moray was interested on what types of message, if any, would penetrate this 'block' and be attended to by participants.
1. To investigate the amount of information Ps could recognise from a rejected/blocked/unattended message
2. To investigate the effect of hearing one's own name in the rejected/blocked/unattended message
3. To investigate the effect of instructions to identify a specific target in the rejected/blocked/unattended message
To provide 'rigorous' empirical test of Cherry's findings
3 laboratory experiments
All used dichotic listening tasks - along with shadowing
Tape recorder with 2 outputs, one to each ear/headphone
Loudness in each ear matched by Ps judgement
4 trials shadowing tasks for practice before each experiment
All passages read by 1 male speaker at rates of 130/150 words a minute
: To investigate the amount of information Ps could recognise from a rejected/blocked/unattended message
Shadowed message = passage
Blocked message = list of simple words REPEATED 35 times
Free recall of rejected message
Approx 30secs after shadowing Ps given recognition test of 21 words
7 from shadowed passage
7 from blocked message
7 similar, but not present in either
IVs & DVs?
1. Shadowed message
2. Rejected message
1. Free recall -unattended message
2. Recognition test
Using the table above, complete the
results & conclusion section on your handout.
Despite words repeated 35 times during unattended message, Ps struggled to recall them.
Ps on av. recognised more words for the shadowed message compared to both the rejected message & control.
The difference between the new material and that from the shadowed was significant at P≤0.01
Almost none of the verbal content of a rejected message can penetrate the block set up
: To investigate the effect of hearing one's own name in the rejected/blocked/unattended message
: 12 Ps, all undergrads or research workers, males & females
Moray wanted to test whether an affective cue - a cue that has a strong meaning for the participant - would penetrate the 'block' and be attended to.
The affective cue was the participants own name.
Ps told responses would be recorded & the main object was to make as few mistakes as possible
Ps were required to shadow 10 short passages in all (10 conditions)
Ps heard 2 passages of light fiction, one to each ear
We assume this was the right ear
Both passages contained an instruction at the start and an instruction within it.
Start instructions were always - "Listen to your right ear" (3 very slight variations)
Messages within varied:
3 x affective instructions
3 X non-affective
4 X no instructions
Moray was interested in whether Ps were more likely to hear the instruction within unattended message if affective (name)
IVs & DVs?
1. No. of times message heard (asked in between passages)
2. If Ps followed instructions
Relative frequencies of hearing affective and non-affective instructions when presented in unattended message.
Write the main finding
Ps were more likely to hear affective instruction than non-affective
The difference between the affective & non-affective instructions was significant at p≤0.01.
An affective message can penetrate the block and be attended to
: To investigate the effect of instructions to identify a specific target in the unattended/blocked/rejected message
: 2 groups of 14 Ps, all undergrads or research workers, males & females
= told they would be asked questions about the shadowed message at the end of each message OR
told specifically to recall as many of the digits (numbers) as possible
= No. of digits recalled
: no significant difference in mean scores between 2 conditions
: Instructions to identify digits in an unattended message is not strong enough to break through the block
: Independent measures
Define the Cocktail Party Effect in your own words