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Transcript of PUNCTUATION MARKS
Use a period at the end of a sentence. Use one space between the period and the first letter of the next sentence, you can´t put an space between the last letter and the period. Moreover, use a period at the end of a command, at the end of an indirect question, and with abbreviations. For example: We go to swim.
THE QUESTION MARK
Use a question mark at the end of a direct question. Avoid use a question mark in combination with other marks. Don´t put a question mark at the end of an indirect question. Also, when a question end with a series of brief questions, each of the little questions can begin with a lowercase letter and end with a question mark. For example: She really loves he?
THE EXCLAMATION MARK
Use an exclamation mark at the end of an emphatic declaration , command or interjection, you may be use it to close questions that are mean to convey extreme emotions, and exclamation mark can be inserted within within parentheses to emphasize any word within a sentence. For example: Bob what are you doing!
Use a colon an explanation that is preceded by a clause or before a list. A colon can inviting one to go on: There is only one thing left to do now: confess while you still have time. The colon separate an independent clause from a quotation that the clause introduces. Use a colon after a salutation in a business letter, and when you designate the speaker within a play or in court testimony. For example:
Addie: do you have a job?
Zack: no, I don't.
Use a semicolon to separate closely related independent clauses, for example:
My grandmother seldom goes to bed this early; she's afraid she'll miss out on something.
Or to help sort out a monster list:
We had four professors on our committee: Peter Wursthorn, Professor of Mathematics; Ronald Pepin, Professor of English; Cynthia Greenblatt.
The hyphen icon indicates either that a hyphen is called for at that point. Some uses of the hyphen are:
Create or indicate compound words, particulary modifiers before nouns.
when you are writing numbers: twenty-two.
Add certain prefixes to the words (ex-husband, anti-social.
Use a dash as a super-comma or set of super-commas to set off parenthetical elements, especially when those elements contain internal forms of punctuation. Don't use dashes to set apart material when commas would do the work for you. A dash is sometimes used to set off concluding lists and explanations in a more informal and abrupt manner than the colon, and in a writing dialogue, the dash is used to show breaks in thought and shifts in tone, for example:
-"How many times have I asked you not to—" Alan suddenly stopped talking and looked out the windos.
-"Not do what?" I prompted.
-"Not to—Oh heck, I forget!"
Use parentheses to include material that you want to emphasize or that wouldn't normally fit into the flow of your narration but you want to include. If the material within parentheses appears within a sentence, don't use a capital letter or period to punctuate that material, and if the material is important enough, use some other means of including it within your text. For example: sixty-four years after his death, Will Hall (do you remember him?) remains America's favorite poet.
Use the brackets to include explanatory words or phrases within quoted language, If you are quoting material and you've to change the capitalization of a word or change a pronoun to make the material fit into your sentence, if you have italicized or underlined words within quoted language that was not italicized or underlined in the original, you can note that change in brackets included within the sentence or paragraph, and to include parenthetical material inside parenthetical material. For example: Pattinson charged her former employer with "falsification of [her] coaching record."
An ellipsis proves to be a handy device when you're quoting material and you want to omit some words, consists of three evenly spaced periods with spaces between the ellipsis and surrounding letters or other marks. Can also be use to indicate a pause in the flow of a sentence and is especially useful in quoted speech. For example: Trevor thought and thought... and then thought some more.
Use an apostrophe to create possessive forms, contractions, and some plurals. The apostrophe shows where a letter or letters have been left out of a contracted verb. Moreover, in possessives, the placement of the apostrophe depends on whether the noun that shows possession is singular or plural, and is also used to form some plurals, especially the plural of letters and digits. For example:
Let us: let's
Who is: who's
She will: she'll
He would: he'd
Use quotation marks to set off material that represents quoted or spoken language. In proofreading and editing your writing, quotation marks almost always travel in pairs. Not use quotation marks in an attempt to emphasize a word, underline or italicize that word instead. For example: My mother always said, "Be careful what you wish for."
A slash is used to indicate a choice between the words it separates, can be translated as "or" and should not be used where the word "or" could not be used in its place. To avoid gender problems with pronouns, some writers use he/she, him/her, and his/her. For example: "The woods are lovely, dark, and deep/ but I have promises to keep."
RULES OF COMMA USE
The comma is a useful punctuation device because it separates the structural elements of sentences into manageable segments
Use a comma to separate two independent clauses joined by:
For example: Mary likes lemon pie, but Tom likes carrots cake.
If there is a list of three or more items. For example: Mom bought bananas, grapes, and cherries.
If there are two or more adjectives in a row. For example: Joseph is a handsome, smart man.
When a dependent clause, unnecessary word, or unnecessary phase and an independent clause are put together. For example: Unless I see you, i won't go.
When an adjective clause is unnecessary. For example: The president of the company, who is a Oxford graduate, plans on retiring at the end of the year.
Before a direct quote. For example: Lucy said, "I loved visiting Canada and Australia."
A name or title that is used to address or call a person to attention. For example: When, Sir, you come back to this hotel, I cannot guarantee you a room.
A comma usually follows a transition word. For example: Arthur studied for a whole week. Therefore, he got an A+.