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Pretty Protist Project

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by

Kara Y

on 22 May 2014

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Transcript of Pretty Protist Project

The Protists
What are Protists?
Variety in Organisms
Range of size from extremely small eukaryotes to extremely large
Range in behavior from small intricate organisms, to plant-like organisms
Range in Habitat- Aquatic & terrestrial
Why Should I Care?
The Very First Eukaryotes
Very Diverse collection of organisms!
protists have important roles pertaining to human activity
Aquatic
Importance in Ecosystems
Terrestrial
In oceans, protists act (in conjunction with prokaryotes) as the primary producers
Act as primary, secondary and other early stage consumers
Microscopic protists provide an important step in the food chain
Unfortunately their roles aren't known well
However, still present in many environments- especially humid or wet ones
Photosynthetic
Non- Photosynthetic
Parasitic & disease causing
AHHHHHHH!!!!
Parasitic:
Rely on living inside or on another life source- Host organism (Most Protists act as parasites)
Affect humans, animals, and plants
Protist
Plasmodium
causes Malaria, a serious condition, especially in developing countries, causing over
1 MILLION
deaths annually.
Sleeping sickness, amoebic dysentery
In
Ontario
, a common issue,
beaver fever,
which is present in the north and in aquatic ecosystems with beavers is caused by protists. Drinking
water
can allow the parasite to infect you,
Also known as
Giardiasis
, it's an intestinal parasite that causes pain, inflammation and diarrhea.
Giardia lambia
Human Uses
Sushi
Products
Food Additives
Seaweed
: Nori- species of a multicellular protist (
Porphyra
)
Toothpaste, Cosmetics
Carrageenan
Agar
Paint
Nucleus +
organelles with membranes
Where did these membranes come from?
Thought they originated from the folded and bent cell membrane
By manipulating the membrane surface area is increased
Eventually over the time, the folds and pockets developed into separate internal membranes.
CASE STUDY
: mitochondria and chloroplasts
Both modern organelles have
2 membranes
Inner membrane: resembles
prokaryote

Outer membrane: resembles membrane of the host
eukaryotic cell
Both contain their own

chloroplasts and DNA,
meaning their control their own processes
Binary fission allows them to
asexually reproduce
on their own
Resemble
Prokaryote
CONCLUSION: ENDOSYMBIOSIs
The ubiquitous theory is that originally
independent prokaryotic cells
, both mitochondria and chloroplasts worked their way into eukaryotic cells, and eventually became
integral components
of them (no longer capable of being organisms themselves).
"
a relationship in which a single-celled organism lives within the cell(s) of another organism.- Biology 11 (61)
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts
Aerobic Prokaryotes
Engulfed by Eukaryotic cell
Gain food supply, Eukaryotic cell gains waste energy produced by prokaryotes
Photosynthetic Prokaryote
Engulfed by Eukaryotic cell
Gain Carbon dioxide waste from the eukaryotic cell, while eukaryotic cell gains extra food from prokaryotic cell
modern proteobacteria
modern cyanobacteria
Life Cycles
Unicellular
Multicellular
Asexual Reproduction
Binary Fission
Sexual Reproduction
Conjugation
-Haploid sex cells form diploid zygote
Alternation of Generations
life cycle with both
diploid sporophyte
and
hapoloid gametophyte
stages
2 Examples
Brown Algae (Producer)
Plasmodium (Parasite)
Plasmodium (Malaria)
oocyst
sporozoites
merozoites
Merozoites
More Merozoites!
male gametocyte in
red blood cell
Liver
Thanks for listening!
Phylogeny & Classification
Most diverse eukaryotes

More than 200 000 species
Not based on evolutionary
kinship
The "Catch-All" Kingdom
Protists
Has been used just as matter of convenience
For species that did not fall into any other major
kingdom
Amoeba
Elephant
Paramecia
Characteristics
No "model" protist
Major characteristics:
- Not animals, plants or fungi
Common characteristics:
- Unicellular
- Moist environments
- Flagella/cilia as extension of
cytoplasm
Different ways of moving, getting nutrients, energy and
reproducing.
Paramecium
Euglena
Interactions in Ecosystems
Producers & Consumers
Photosynthetic Protists:
Primary producers in aquatic
food webs. Ex- seaweed
Climate Change:
Increased acidity and temperatures interfere
with protists' ability to produce outer
protective layer.
Without this layer, the protist is most likely
to die, which damages the food web.
Raised temperatures may increase the
population of some species, which may also
have an effect on the food web
Ex - Phytoplankton: Produce half the Earth's oxygen
Symbiotic Organisms
Organisms that rely or depend on one another.
Zooxanthellae:
Symbiotic photosynthetic protists,
that live in corals and source food.
Increased temperatures, lose the
green chlorophyll pigment and are
unable to perform photosynthesis.
Coral becomes white and dies.
Full transcript