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Transcript of X-RAY
x-rays are electromagnetic radiation that penetrates structures in the body differently and creates images of these structures on photographic film or a fluorescent screen. The images are called diagnostic x-rays.
How does an x-ray work?
X rays can easily pass through air and soft tissue in the body. When it encounters more dense material, like a tumor, bone, or a metal fragment, they are stopped. If the materials have a greater density when the rays pass through it more rays are absorbed. So bone absorbs more x rays than muscle or fat, and tumors could absorb more x rays than surrounding tissue. The x-rays that pass through the body strike a photographic plate and interact with silver molecules on the surface of the film.
Dense material (bone): Shows up white
Softer tissue: Shows up shades of grey
Airspaces: Shows up black
| Special Types of X-Ray Procedures |
A technique that uses a continuous beam of x-rays to produce images that show the movement of organs (ie. stomach, intestine, colon)
Also known as radiation which is used to treat cancer. The x-rays damage the DNA and either kill the cancer cells or prevent them from multiplying
HOW IT WORKS
The patient ingests a contrast liquid (barium or iodine) to clearly see the organ. The x-ray energy called "electromagnetic waves" travels through the body and scans the organ. The different densities of organs allow you to see what you're meant to be looking for as the waves weaken at different rates and at different areas. It then travels to an image intensifier where the image is brightened then shown on a tv screen where it encodes into patterns of light.
During radiotherapy, a beam of x-rays is directed at the tumour so that there is minimal damage done to the healthy and normals cells. It makes small breaks in the DNA which prevent cancer cells from growing and dividing often causing them to die.
also used to study blood vessels
image is called an angiogram
shows any narrowing of blood vessels
cerebral angiogram shows blockages of blood vessels in the brain
special dye is injected into an artery in the groin to visualize the blood flow
An x-ray can detect many diseases and conditions. Some of the diseases and conditions that can be diagnosed with an x-ray include:
mainly used to treat cancer
treats tumors by shrinking them
treats thyroid disease and some blood disorder
Is used to examine, diagnose and treat certain areas of the body such as:
Also examines, diagnoses, and treats solid organs such as the:
destructive to tissues
can cause mutation to the DNA
cause DNA damage-random cell division, cell dormancy and sometimes cancer
affect your blood system
-affects red blood cells causing anemia
-affects white blood cells causing your immune system to become weak
damage bone marrow causing hair loss, rashes and redness of skin
can cause cancer later on in life
causes injuries to your skin such as burns
destroys healthy cells along with cancer cells
can cause side effects such as:
-nausea and vomiting
-sore skin (red)
-joint or muscle stiffness
-shortness of breath
In pregnant women all three methods (x-ray, radiotherapy, and fluoroscopy) can cause defects to their babies and also affect the labour process.
Lung Mass or Nodule
Fluid around the lung (Pleural Effusion
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Congestive Heart Failure
Symptoms of a cough, shortness of breath or chest pain
Find any objects in the body
use of x-rays in cases of theft
freedom of choice of employees
infairness in bargaining power between employer and employee reflecting a wider social inequity
Assessment at risk requiring health assessment of individual
Pre-requisite for insurance can be medical examination which may involve ionizing radiation
Freedom of choice may be limited as it may be requirement of mortgage
Range of choice of insurers may be such the selection of alternative insurers restricted
Ethical issues in relation to justification of employers where there is:
The check of freedom of choice
The wrong in bargaining power
Involves the possible benefits and damages to both the exposed individual and society
Population being scanned may not be the population deriving the benefit
-immigrant chest x-rays
Individual exposed may be disadvantaged by the consequences of the procedure
-asylum seekers (age determination)
To make an approval, it may not be given to exposure
Input is needed for sources that extend beyond the secured radiation protection community
Name one disease or condition that an x-ray can detect.
Which of the following is NOT a risk of using radiotherapy?
a) Destroys some healthy cells along with cancer cells
b)Side effect such as shortness of breath
c)side effect such as sore skin
d) Side effect such as cramps
What contrast liquid does a patient ingest during a fluoroscopy procedure?
How does radiotherapy kill cancer cells?
a) Cleanses the whole body
b) Makes breaks in the DNA
c) Shoots and automatically kills the cells with the
d) Creates a barrier between the healthy cells and cancer cells
Which one of these are a political issue?
a) Voluntary and justification
b) Immigrant chest x-rays
c) Required for insurance
d) Freedom of choice of employees
Which one of these is NOT a social issue?
a) Infairness in bargaining power
b) Freedom of choice of employees
c) Voluntary and justification
d) Crime prevention