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Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition

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Brandi Nichols

on 4 February 2014

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Transcript of Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition

The Affective Filter Hypothesis
Affective factors that block language acquisition:
*Nervousness
*Boredom
*anxiety

Affective factors that open language acquisition:
*Natural setting
*Hands-on activities
*Singing

Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition
The Learning/Acquisition Hypothesis
Learning
*Conscious
*Rules and vocabulary
*Memorization

Acquisition
*Subconscious
*Language use for other purposes
*Immersion
The Natural Order Hypothesis
"Krashen reviews research that shows that language, both first language and second language, is acquired in a natural order" (Freeman & Freeman, 2004, p. 36).

Examples:
First Language Acquisition:
*Vowels before consonants
*Statements before questions
*Positive statements before negative statements

Second Language Acquisition:
*Spanish and Chinese speakers learning English:
-Plural "s" in nouns before third-person "s" in present-tense verbs


The Monitor Hypothesis
"
Acquisition
is what enables native English speakers to tell what sound is right in the language...The rules that people
learn
can be used to monitor spoken or written output" (Freeman & Freeman, 2004, p. 37).

*Effective monitor use=
-Spending time
-Focusing on language form
-Knowing the rules

*Monitor use is easier with spoken language than written
The Input Hypothesis
"How does acquisition take place? According to Krashen, the key is comprehensible input--messages, either oral or written, that students understand" (Freeman & Freeman, 2004, p. 38).

Considerations:
*i+1= Input slightly beyond a student's ability to understand
*Comprehensible input= modification to accommodate all levels
-Use pictures, gestures, tone, interactive activities
Krashen's Hypotheses
1. The Learning/Acquisition Hypothesis

2. The Natural Order Hypothesis

3. The Monitor Hypothesis

4. The Input Hypothesis

5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis
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