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Ecology & Biomes Take 2

Ecosystems, food chains, trophic levels, succession
by

Nicole Koller

on 25 September 2012

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Transcript of Ecology & Biomes Take 2

Ecology Biosphere all of Earth's ecosystems Ecosystem all of the biotic and abiotic factors in an area biotic =
living abiotic =
nonliving "bio" means life

Examples:
plants
animals
bacteria
fungi the prefix "a" means not

Examples:
light
water
soil
rocks Community all of the organisms in an area Population all of the individuals of a species in an area Organism individual living thing Niche an organism's way of life, including
habitat
diet
behaviors
when it is active
mating patterns
role in the ecosystem environment in which an organism lives producer
consumer
decomposer Levels of Ecological Study the study of ecosystems living things and their interaction with the environment Energy Flow in Ecosystems Food Chain Food Web Primary consumer Secondary consumer eats producers eats consumers phytoplankton brown algae volvox main producer in aquatic ecosystems Bracket fungus bacteria colonies decomposing a dead tree dead organic matter traces the flow of energy in an ecosystem arrows show the direction energy is flowing all organisms are consumed by decomposers Trophic level feeding level in an ecosystem always occupied by producers
contains the most biomass
contains the most energy primary consumers (herbivores)
contains less biomass than Trophic Level 1
10% of energy from Trophic Level 1 secondary consumers (carnivores)
contains less biomass than Trophic Level 11
10% of energy from Trophic Level 11 tertiary consumers (top carnivores)
contains the least biomass
1/1000 of the energy originally in the producers Decomposers do not occupy a trophic level
they feed on all trophic levels of the ecosystem Trophic Level 1 Trophic Level 2 Trophic Level 3 Trophic Level 4 The amount of available energy decreases going up the pyramid The populations get smaller as the trophic level increases Energy is lost as heat at each level Not enough energy is left to support a 5th trophic level in most ecosystems Less energy is available to support the higher levels smaller population
=
smaller biomass interconnected feeding relationships Producers just like in a food chain, arrows show the flow of energy Primary consumers Secondary
Consumers The mouse is a primary consumer when it eats plants and a secondary consumer when it eats insects Tertiary Consumers Biomes major ecosystem that covers a large area of earth Characteristics:
similar communities of plants and animals
similar latitude on Earth
similar rainfall and temperature patterns
similar abiotic factors (ex: soil type)
actual plant and animal species will differ in different areas of Earth, but will have similar niches and characteristics (ex: bison in North America and yaks in Asia) Bison Yak Desert Chapparal Tundra Polar ice Aquatic Biomes Photic Zone Aphotic Zone Benthic Zone upper layer of water where light is present
phytoplankton and other producers are in this zone lower layer of water where little or no light is present
insufficient light for photosynthesis bottom layer of any aquatic ecosystem
dead organic matter collects here
water becomes more shallow as more organic matter collects some aquatic ecosystems can support a 5th trophic level occurs when soil remains
grasses and annuals are first species Predation one organism obtains food at the expense of another
one benefits, one suffers Ecological Relationships one consumer eats another Symbiotic Relationships one organism benefits & the other is neither hurt nor harmed
true commensalism is difficult to find in nature close relationship between 2 species
one organism lives in or on another Parasitism Mutualism Commensalism both organisms benefit from the arrangement Population Size Tick feeding on an animal Cowbird being fed by a goldfinch. A cowbird is a "brood parasite." Insect-eating birds get food from the parasites on the rhino. The rhino benefits by having parasites removed. The barnacle gets a place to live, and the whale is not affected. Population Density number of individuals in an area limiting factor any condition that can restrict a population's growth space
food availability
disease
water
trophic level carrying capacity maximum population size an area can support birth or death rates change near carrying capacity
affected by limiting factors How can other species affect carrying capacity? interspecific
competition competitive
exclusion 2 species in a community utilize the same resource a more successful species prevents another from living in the community What resources are the trees in the canopy layers competing for? "S" curve can live in this area, but Balanus prevents it from living there What species has been nearly driven out of North America that once restricted the range of coyotes? Gray wolf space
light Ecological Succession Nutrient Cycles Carbon cycle
Water cycle
Nitrogen cycle evaporation of water via the leaves of a plant nearly 80% of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas
nitrogen gas is not useable by most living things Rain, snow, and lightning convert a small amount of nitrogen most nitrogen fixation occurs in the soil convert nitrogen into a form plants can use beans
peas
peanuts commercial fertilizers contain nitrates, skipping the other steps nitrates are absorbed through the roots used to build proteins consumers eat the plants, and the nitrogen is passed on in the form of proteins dead plants and animals and animal waste provide nitrogen to decomposers, which feed it back into the cycle process by which an ecosystem recovers after a disturbance Disturbance
volcanic eruption
fire
human activities Primary Succession Secondary Succession occurs when soil is destroyed or covered
"pioneer species" begin soil formation Climax Community final stage in succession
takes 100s of years to occur Unit E.Q. How are the varied relationships in an ecosystem affected by change?
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