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Macromolecules and Biochemistry

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Michael Budniak

on 6 September 2018

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Transcript of Macromolecules and Biochemistry

Nucleic Acids—complex macromolecules that store information in cells in the form of a code (genetic)—DNA and RNA
Built from monomer subunits called nucleotides, each of which contains:
1 5-carbon sugar (either deoxyribose or ribose)
1 phosphate group (linking sugars together)
1 of 5 different nitrogen bases (adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine, uracil)
D. Nucleic Acids
large polymers composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen

The widest range of functions of all organic molecules

Completely determined/built from instructions in the DNA of cells!
C. Proteins
6) Unsaturated fats—have at least one double bond in the carbon chain
If more than one double-bonded carbon, considered polyunsaturated fats
Harder to absorb, therefore better!! (NOT good for you, just better than unsaturated)
Liquid at room temp. (most plant-based oils)
B. Lipids (Fats)
form when 2 monosaccharides join through bonding. The bonding process is known as
dehydration synthesis or a condensation reaction
. Water is produced and usually released as waste
A. Carbohydrates
A) Carbohydrates- sugars and starches
1) CH O (2 Hydrogen, 1 Carbon, 1 Oxygen) in a fixed ratio
2) Simplest carb building block is called
“Simple” sugars- glucose, galactose, fructose
Plants Milk Fruit
IV. Compounds for Life
Carbon Bonds
A) C, H, O, N make up practically all living things
1) Organic compounds contain carbons, bonded to hydrogens
2) Inorganic compounds contain no carbons
B) Organic Chemistry- study of 2 million compounds containing carbon
1) 6p+, 6n0, 6 e-
A) Forms four covalent bonds to be happy
2) Can be branched or straight
III. Chemical Compounds in Living Things
pH Scale
A) Substances composed of 2+ elements or compounds mixed together but not bonded together (sand and water) (air)
B) Two types of mixtures
= one or more substances distributed evenly through another substance
a) Solute- what is dissolving
b) Solvent- what does the dissolving
c) Concentration- how much solute is dissolved in solvent
= water + nondissolved material
II. Mixtures
A) Has a covalent bond between 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen but they don’t share electrons evenly
1) They are slightly charged on each end (polar)
2) Each water molecule then acts like a magnet attracting other H O molecules
3) They dissolve ions well
4) Many other unique properties also due to polarity...
I. Water
Putting the little stuff together to make the bigger stuff

The how, the what, and the why of LIFE!

Biochemistry #11
1) Waxy or oily so water-repellent
2) Store energy (lots of hydrogen possible as from beef fat with formula C H O ), form membranes, act as chemical messengers, insulation to cold, food reserves
3) Fatty acid (tails) have carboxyl groups to link them (COOH)
4) Glycerol has hydroxide group (OH)
B. Fats--Lipids
C) Acids, Bases, Salts
= a compound releasing H+ ions
HCl H+ + Cl- when mixed with water
Bases =
a compound releases hydroxide ions (OH-)
NaOH Na+ + OH-
releases ions other than H+ and OH-
NaCl Na+ + Cl-
pH scale
standard measurement of concentration of H+ and OH- ions
More H+ = acidic More OH- = basic, pH scale goes from 0-14
0 acidic 7 neutral 14 basic
II. Mixtures
The Chemical Basis and Formation of Life is based on WATER!!
Water links two hydrogen atoms to a single oxygen in covalent bonds
BUT the sharing of electrons is NOT equal! Since Oxygen has a much greater mass than Hydrogen, the electrons shared are "pulled" to the Oxygen more strongly and spend more time around the Oxygen atom
This creates what is known as a
polar molecule
, one that has a slight charge on one "side" versus the other
a pH of 0 or a pH of 14 is only theoretically possible and then for only a split second of time....
Molecules/compounds with the same number and types of atoms, but arranged/bonded in different places
Differences in bonding give rise to different shapes/structures of molecules and therefore what they can do and how they interact with other molecules
Example: the name and formula for the simplest sugar on the planet, which is...?

Formula = C H O
Structure looks like this:
BUT the carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms can be arranged differently to produce isomers, such as...
Anybody want to take a guess at what happens when there is ONLY carbon bonded to itself with as many bonds as possible?
Hardest natural substance on Earth...
Although NOW our tech has gotten good enough for us to artificially manufacture these things. If can be made CHEAPER, then WHY NOT???
4) When disaccharides or more complex sugars are broken into smaller units, it’s called
(hydro- or water -lysis splitting up)
= most complex types of sugars examples: starch, cellulose, glycogen- these are made of many monosaccharides

- like chain-link fence in cell walls for plants- Structural support
original bond
one hydrogen from water joins to one molecule, an OH group added to the other, splitting it apart
reactant causing change
= many branches of monosaccharides , food storage for plants
- similar to starch, more branched, food storage for animals
B. Fats--Lipids
glycerol "head"
fatty acid "tails"
"Careful. It's poison. Okay, it's not really poison, but you'd probably have to drink oil to flush this **** out, and that's poison. Swanson, producers of some of the world's fattiest TV dinners, is seeking to take over the breakfast market with a new line of microwaveable morning meals. It's called the 'Hungry Man All Day Breakfast,' and it's threatening to turn people into manatees.

Now you may think I'm being overly obvious here - everyone knows TV dinners are bad for you, right? This is true, but Swanson's new breakfast takes it to a level which previously could only be achieved by eating entire alternate universes made only of prosciutto. I'm being totally serious - I'm obsessed with reading those stupid nutritional labels on everything in the supermarket, and to date, I've never seen anything quite so decidedly heart-killing than Swanson's Hungry Man Breakfast. Don't believe me? Check it out...
Ah, saturated FATS! Why is one-third of the American public overweight if not downright OBESE?? Hmmmm, let's see what people are eating....
"Holy (expletive for excrement). Holy holy HOLY (censored). 64 grams of fat, 2,090 milligrams of sodium, and enough cholesterol to kill anything that's ever lived. The 'justification' is that you're supposed to eat (defecation as an adjective) food in the morning, as it supplies you with a suitable amount of energy to get through the day. Unfortunately, Swanson's supplying you with enough 'energy' to get through a week, and even if the only other thing you ate after this breakfast was oxygen, there's still a relatively high chance that your (anus) will grow hands and tie your intestines in knots to prevent this (expletive for excrement) from ever passing through. Really, really awful stuff."

Baskin Robbins
Death Shake
Has 2,300 Calories

By cwalters onSeptember 20, 2008

Please, do not ever buy this 2,300 calorie shake from Baskin Robbins, which contains approximately half a pound of sugar. As Consumerist reader Doug points out,

"Last time I checked, an adult male should consume 2,500 calories a day, and this shake nearly meets that requirement! The saturated fat present in that shake is over 3 times the RDA of 20 grams, which will put you on the fast track for heart disease. Of course, that's if the Type 2 diabetes caused by all 266 grams of that sugar doesn't get you first.

While I believe that people should be held responsible for what they consume, I think corporations need to share just a little responsibility too, and not sell piles of liquid sugar and fat like this. I'd be surprised if even 1 in 100 of the folks that consume that shake know just how bad it is.

On the plus side, it does provide 120% of the RDA for calcium. Oh, and about 1600% of the RDA for Heath candy bars."
Or how about this one....
5) Saturated fats—all carbons have single bonds filled with hydrogen atoms (BAD!) Too easy to digest and store what you DON'T need!!
Solid at room temperature (lard, beef fat, bacon grease, McDonald's french fries)
And knowing some of you sick little buggers, guarantee the next video is going to do nothing but make you HUNGRY rather than disgusted...
7) 2 other types of lipids:

a) Sterols like cholesterol (NECESSARY in small quantities for life!)
However, this doesn't necessarily mean that our wonderful American culture of eating hasn't taken the UNsaturated fats to an extreme, also...

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Olestra (also known by its brand name Olean) is a
fat substitute
that adds no fat, calories, or cholesterol to products. It has been used in the preparation of traditionally high-fat foods such as potato chips, thereby lowering or eliminating their fat content. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) originally approved olestra for use as a replacement for fats and oils in prepackaged ready-to-eat snacks in 1996,[1] concluding that such use “meets the safety standard for food additives, reasonable certainty of no harm.”[2] In the late 1990s, Olestra
lost its popularity due to side effects
, but products containing the ingredient can still be purchased at grocery stores.
In other words, gentlemen, eat enough of these bad boys in one sitting, wait a few hours, and you better have a seat belt attached to your toilet, because the express elevator from hell is coming DOWN and there is no force in the universe that will stop it...

Welcome to American excesses, all for the goal of a consumer-based-no-consequences society...
Move over, Twinkies:
Deep-fried butter is here

Inventor of fried Coke and fried cookie dough is ‘back with a vengeance’"
We're not done yet...
Abel Gonzales Jr. says his deep-fried butter invention tastes like “a mix between a biscuit or a croissant that is just stuffed to the gills with butter on the inside.”
By Laura T. Coffey
TODAY.com contributor

updated 10/15/2009 12:20:19 PM ET

Who among us hasn’t simultaneously marveled and shuddered over accounts of deep-fried Twinkies? Deep-fried Oreos? Deep-fried bacon?

Well, brace yourself, because a new deep-fried item has been invented that’s so bold, so audacious, so brazen, it’s bound to take your breath away. The invention is none other than:

Deep-fried butter.

That’s right. This artery-clogging, heart-stopping dish is among eight new deep-fried concoctions that will be unveiled to the public at the State Fair of Texas in Dallas later this month. Each year, fair concessionaires try to outdo themselves by dreaming up recipes that could send you racing to your cardiologist if they became regular staples of your diet. The friendly competition has become so intense that fair officials have dubbed the fairgrounds the “Fried Food Capital of Texas.”

This year’s fried butter entry is the brainchild of 39-year-old Dallas resident Abel Gonzales Jr., winner of past state fair competitions for his Texas Fried Cookie Dough, Fried Peanut Butter, Jelly and Banana Sandwich and Fried Coke recipes.

(That’s right. Fried Coke.)

To make fried butter, the butter itself needs to have an outer coating, or shell, if you will — something that can withstand the bubbling cauldron of the deep fryer.

“I mean, butter by itself does not taste good,” Gonzales said. “Nobody just grabs a stick of butter and eats it. That would be gross.”

So here’s what Gonzales does: He takes 100 percent pure butter, whips it until it is light and fluffy, freezes it, then surrounds it with dough. The butter-laden dough balls are then dropped into the deep fryer.

For purists who just want the unadulterated taste of butter, Gonzales serves up plain-butter versions of his creation. For others who want a little more pizzazz, he offers three additional versions with flavored butters: garlic, grape or cherry.

“When you taste it, it really does taste like a hot roll with butter,” said Sue Gooding, spokeswoman for the State Fair of Texas. “It tastes great.”

“It’s like a mix between a biscuit or a croissant that is just stuffed to the gills with butter on the inside,” Gonzales said. “I think that’s the best way to describe it.”

An order of fried butter will get you three or four pieces of piping-hot dough in a little cardboard boat.

“Any more than that and I think it would be a little bit too much,” Gonzales said. “A little bit too rich.”

Pork chips and pecan pies
Other deep-fried creations to be showcased at this year’s state fair include:
•Green Goblins: Cherry peppers stuffed with spicy shredded chicken and guacamole, battered, deep-fried and topped with queso.
•Twisted Yam on a Stick: A spiral-cut sweet potato, fried on a skewer, then rolled in butter and dusted with cinnamon and sugar.
•Fernie’s Deep Fried Peaches & Cream: Served with a side of vanilla buttercream icing for dipping.
•Texas Fried Pecan Pie: A mini-pecan pie battered, deep fried and served with caramel sauce, whipping cream and chopped candied pecans.
•Country Fried Pork Chips: Battered, thin-sliced pork loin deep fried and served with sides of ketchup or cream gravy.
•Sweet Jalapeno Corn Dog Shrimp: Shrimp on a stick, coated with a sweet and spicy cornmeal batter, deep fried and served with a spicy glaze.
•Fried Peanut Butter Cup Macaroon: A peanut butter cup wrapped inside a coconut macaroon, fried and then dusted with powdered sugar.

On Labor Day, all eight creations were judged in the categories of Best Taste and Most Creative. Gonzales bagged a trophy for Most Creative for deep-fried butter, and Christi Erpillo won the Best Taste award for her peaches-and-cream creation.

Gonzales won the 2005 State Fair of Texas' Best Taste competition for his fried peanut butter, jelly and banana sandwich. (For the record, Elvis pan-fried his legendary peanut butter and banana sandwiches; Gonzales deep-fried his.)
The annual competition, now in its fifth year, has prompted concessionaires to push limits and become ever more imaginative and daring with their entries. Previous competitions saw the debut of deep-fried lattés, fried banana splits and chicken-fried bacon.
And now, back to our regularly scheduled broadcast....
b) Phospholipids used in cell membrane construction
Keeps cell membranes fluid/flexible!
3) Used for structure, muscle contraction, transporting O , provides immunity and enzymes
1) Proteins are built from amino acid monomers (there are 20 total in all life) with the same basic structure:
The "R" group is the variable. Each of the 20 a.a. has a different atom or molecule as the "R" group...
"R" groups
2) Linked together by
--the removal of H+ from one a.a. and OH- from another, forming a covalent bond called a
polypeptide bond
and releasing water as a waste product (just like linking monosaccharides!)
speed up or even start chemical reactions by lowering the amount of energy needed for bonds to break and reform between molecules (activation energy)
We'll talk LOTS more about this with the unit on DNA coming soon to a theatre near you...
MONOunsaturated fat!
POLYunsaturated fat!
Part 1
Full transcript