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Pedagogical approaches to diabetes education

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James Gillum

on 29 December 2012

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Transcript of Pedagogical approaches to diabetes education

contructed New knowledge is
built upon existing
knowledge Children are active
in their own learning Teaching works best when it helps scaffold learning Children's capacity to understand develops
over time Language is ambiguous Explanations should be approriate to the developmental level of the child Teaching factual information is no different, but... Little but often does the trick Revision is key We retain more information when we learn in 'natural' settings Learning is a social activity Plan for learning beyond the clinic Positive information is more powerful We cannot learn when we are frightened! Pedagogy:
Implications for
Diabetes education What do you see? What thoughts does this image trigger?

Does it evoke the same response in you as it does in the person next to you?

Does it evoke the same feelings and thoughts now as it did 15 years ago?

Do we all see the same thing? Knowing reality means constructing systems of transformations that correspond, more or less adequately, to reality. Activity 1: What's in the bag?

What is in the bag in front of you?
You may touch, feel, smell, listen, but
you may NOT look!

HOW do you come to know what
is in the bag? Think back to your professional training.

What learning activities do you remeber most clearly?

What things were most helpful in learning new skills? Students must do more than just listen: They must read, write, discuss, or be engaged in solving problems. Most important, to be actively involved, students must engage in such higher-order thinking tasks as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Bonwell, C.; Eison, J. (1991). Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom AEHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. Washington, D.C.: Jossey-Bass. Ways to promote active learning Instead of telling them to check their blood 3 times a day. Ask 'How will you remember to check your blood...?' Use problem solving... Jamie knows he needs to monitor his insulin, but often forgets. What advice would you give him? Could you incorporate a video into a group problem solving session? Set homework. E.g. Work with dad to design an information leaflet for... Consider the following misconceptions Prior knowledge Misconception Jet propulsion Properties of wool Organised behaviour exhaust fumes propel cars Australian sheep must get very hot! There must be a 'lead' bird Schema Assimilation Accommodation The world Schemata help us to organise our world. They allow us to interpret new information
based on our existing knowledge. E.g.

Some of you will not have made a cup of tea at Warwick University before. Yet, the task probably did not pose a significant challenge to you.

You used your existing 'Tea' schema in a novel situation, and chances are, it worked! We also use schema to group ideas, objects and people...

E.g. Fish, cars, medical professionals. Usually, this works well..... But..........

............sometimes it doesn't! When we come across new information, we can react in two ways.

We can incorporate the new information into our schema....

Or, we can change our schema to take account of the new information.

Piaget referred to these processes as:

'Assimilation and Accomodation' "Fish swim in the sea, they have fins and tails.. They have smooth 'skin'. They lay eggs and breath water.

Mammals are fury, live on the land and have arms and legs.

Therefore, dolphins are fish.

I'll assimilate this new animal into my fish schema" Oh!!! Dolphins breath air and don't lay eggs!

Perhaps I better revise my fish and mammal schemata to accommodate this new information. So what? IT was six men of Indostan
To learning much inclined,
Who went to see the Elephant
(Though all of them were blind),
That each by observation
Might satisfy his mind.


The First approached the Elephant,
And happening to fall
Against his broad and sturdy side,
At once began to bawl:
"God bless me!—but the Elephant
Is very like a wall!"


The Second, feeling of the tusk,
Cried:"Ho!—what have we here
So very round and smooth and sharp?
To me 't is mighty clear
This wonder of an Elephant
Is very like a spear!"


The Third approached the animal,
And happening to take
The squirming trunk within his hands,
Thus boldly up and spake:

"I see," quoth he, "the Elephant
Is very like a snake!"


The Fourth reached out his eager hand,
And felt about the knee.
"What most this wondrous beast is like
Is mighty plain," quoth he;
"'T is clear enough the Elephant
Is very like a tree!"


The Fifth, who chanced to touch the ear,
Said: "E'en the blindest man
Can tell what this resembles most;
Deny the fact who can,
This marvel of an Elephant
Is very like a fan!"


The Sixth no sooner had begun
About the beast to grope,
Than, seizing on the swinging tail
That fell within his scope,
"I see," quoth he, "the Elephant
Is very like a rope!"


And so these men of Indostan
Disputed loud and long,
Each in his own opinion
Exceeding stiff and strong,
Though each was partly in the right,
And all were in the wrong!


So, oft in theologic wars
The disputants, I ween,
Rail on in utter ignorance
Of what each other mean,
And prate about an Elephant
Not one of them has seen! Jean Piaget "the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers" What the child can already do, on their own What the child can do with support What the child cannot do. The Zone of
Development Teach here! Find this out! Don't teach this yet! Lev Vygotsky What are your patients' schemata of medics? What do your patients think about their ability to change? How might your patients' existing knowledge influence their understanding of what you tell them? Question and Listen Talk with your patient Revisit things later Stregnths

Difficulties How do you present to your patients?

How does your clinic present?

What schemata might they have of you and the clinic? As well as understanding their illness and themselves as a person with the illness,
patients need key factual information to help manage their care. (e.g. how to calculate blood sugar levels) Sensorimotor Stage Ages 0-2
The world is understood through movement Pre-operational
Stage Ages 2-7 Ego centrism and Animism Concrete Operational
Stage Ages 7-11 Centration Formal Operations Ages 11+
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